After learning new words, brain sees them as pictures -- ScienceDaily - http://www.sciencedaily.com/release...
"When we look at a known word, our brain sees it like a picture, not a group of letters needing to be processed. That's the finding from a new study that shows the brain learns words quickly by tuning neurons to respond to a complete word, not parts of it." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
""We are not recognizing words by quickly spelling them out or identifying parts of words, as some researchers have suggested. Instead, neurons in a small brain area remember how the whole word looks -- using what could be called a visual dictionary," he says." - Maitani
Even for German speakers? :) - Stephen Mack
Are you hinting at our famous long words such as Donaudampfschifffahrtskapitän or Blumentopferde? That's an interesting question, what happens when we read a compound word? I suppose we simultaneously see the whole word and identify the parts. Hm. - Maitani
Yup, that was what I was wondering. - Stephen Mack
You have compound words in English, too. - Maitani
Not nearly as long! Do long compounds generate a slideshow? - Stephen Mack from iPhone
Based only on self-observation, I have the impression we take them in simultaneously. - Maitani
I'd like to learn more about this topic, if there are really differences in perceiving words/text between native speakers of different languages (I think there have to be), how we perceive compound words, if there are implications for teaching children/people to read. - Maitani
Btw, most of our compound words aren't as long as "Donaudampfschifffahrts....." (I suspect that one has intentionally been constructed for the purpose of demonstration). Two elements is absolutely common, three isn't unusual, but four often comes across as artificial or constructed ad hoc. The compounds that make it into the lexicon are the shorter ones. - Maitani
I definitely look at some Korean words as images. I them know on sight, especially verbs with the high honorific endings. I see -습니다 or -습니까 & immediately know I need to change my tone and what's a question or statement. To answer your question, with English, I can look at a whole word and just know. I rarely come across a word I don't know or, at least, can't figure out. With Spanish,... more... - Anika
Anika, I am not sure I understand what you mean by "block" in Korean. - Maitani
Are blocks something like letters, or combinations of letters? - Maitani
I think the 'skipping over' part is related to what we mean by a 'block' - and that this is closely related to reading difficulties some people have. When people 'jumble' words, skip over them, read them in the wrong order and/or don't find the meaning in them, there's evidence to suggest it's perceptual. - WoH: Professor MOTHRA
Do you mean how in Hangul, the assemblages that look like single logograms are actually composed of multiple letters? - Victor Ganata
I think this phenomenon of chunking was tangentially touched upon by that meme where you could comprehend words just from the initial and final consonants even if the middle was scrambled. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki... - Victor Ganata
I think this is also part of the reason why certain English words have changed spelling drastically over the years while others have been well conserved. It frequently has nothing to do with actual phonetics and is often just about avoiding visual ambiguity. - Victor Ganata
This phenomenon of chunking is probably why spelling reform faces such difficulties in implementation. - Victor Ganata
Oh, sorry. Yes, each 'block' has 2 - 3 letters. Take 미국 The first 'block' is '미' and the second one is '국'. I immediately recognize '국' to mean soup, mix, or place/people. BTW, on the flip, Koreans like to shorten words mostly with syllabic abbreviation or just to their initial letters, which is terrible for a new learner. Also, the new trend of creating non-standard compound words is... more... - Anika
We learn new words by absorbing the totality of their associations and connections with other words, with particular pragmatic situations, with particular emotions, with particular sensory stimulation, etc. Words are embedded in many patterns across multiple dimensions of experience. And this is why the natural language understanding component of artificial intelligence is so difficult... more... - Sean McBride
Anika, thank you. Fascinating how they combine the words in such creative ways. :-) - Maitani
Poland's Linguistic Heritage - Documentation Database for Endangered Languages - Poland's Linguistic Heritage - http://inne-jezyki.amu.edu.pl/Fronten...
Poland's Linguistic Heritage - Documentation Database for Endangered Languages - Poland's Linguistic Heritage
"Welcome to the website of the documentation database of endangered language varieties spoken on the territory of Poland and developed in - synchronic or diachronic - language contact(s) with Polish (excluding the dialects of the Polish language itself). The focus of the present inventory is on a wide range of non-Polish languages and their non-standard varieties illustrating the richness and diversity of Poland's language landscape and the variety of its language contacts." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
"In Poland and in its neighbouring countries (once included in the territory of Poland) there are many languages spoken by small groups of speakers that have not been documented so far and they are severely endangered. These languages prove the linguistic diversity and richness of the former Republic of Poland (the Polish historical name is "Rzeczypospolita") and are an important... more... - Maitani
‘The Summit,’ by Ed Conway - NYTimes.com - http://www.nytimes.com/2015...
‘The Summit,’ by Ed Conway - NYTimes.com
"For many people, Bretton Woods stands for that rarest of moments: when governments and experts come together to restore order to a chaotic global economy. After the financial meltdown of 2008, the president of the World Bank and the financier George Soros joined Bill Clinton’s and Tony Blair’s earlier call for a “new Bretton Woods.” It didn’t happen. The world and especially America may yet come to regret that." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
"To its admirers, many good things were achieved at the Bretton Woods conference over three hectic weeks in the summer of 1944. As the Allies made their final push to liberate Europe, 730 representatives of 44 countries gathered in New Hampshire to set the rules for the postwar economy. Crowded into the half-restored grandeur of a hotel named after nearby Mount Washington, they agreed... more... - Maitani
The ancient city that's crumbling away - BBC News - http://www.bbc.com/news...
The ancient city that's crumbling away - BBC News
The ancient city that's crumbling away - BBC News
"The ancient city of Mohenjo Daro was one of the world's earliest major urban settlements - but as Razia Iqbal found on a recent visit to Pakistan, its remains are in danger of crumbling away." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
"As a lover of language, I am convinced that certain combinations of letters have in them some innate magic - like Kubla Khan, or Xanadu, or Nineveh. So allow the words Mohenjo Daro to roll slowly off your tongue. And let me tell you about this ancient city, rediscovered nearly 100 years ago, but which had its heyday 4,000 years ago." - Maitani
Intellectual character of conspiracy theorists – Quassim Cassam – Aeon - http://aeon.co/magazin...
"Why do some people believe conspiracy theories? It’s not just who or what they know. It’s a matter of intellectual character" - Maitani from Bookmarklet
"Meet Oliver. Like many of his friends, Oliver thinks he is an expert on 9/11. He spends much of his spare time looking at conspiracist websites and his research has convinced him that the terrorist attacks on New York and Washington, DC, of 11 September 2001 were an inside job. The aircraft impacts and resulting fires couldn’t have caused the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center to... more... - Maitani
Turmeric & Saffron: Nowruz - Persian New Year 2015 - http://turmericsaffron.blogspot.de/2015...
Turmeric & Saffron: Nowruz - Persian New Year 2015
Storchencam | Storchennest-Hoechstadt.de - http://www.storchennest-hoechstadt.de/live-ca...
Storchencam | Storchennest-Hoechstadt.de
Das erste Ei ist da! - Maitani from Bookmarklet
Spring! :) - Eivind
Yay! - Kirsten from Android
Russian roots and Yemen's Socotra language - Al Jazeera English - http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth...
Russian roots and Yemen's Socotra language - Al Jazeera English
"Socotri's origins are close to the oldest written Semitic tongues that died out thousands of years ago" - Maitani from Bookmarklet
"Socotri is the most archaic and isolated of several archaic and isolated tongues spoken in Yemen and Oman known as "modern South Arabian languages". Its vocabulary is immensely rich - for example, there are distinct verbs for "to go" according to the time of the day, or for "to give birth" depending on the animal involved." - Maitani
"Socotri's roots are close to the oldest written Semitic tongues that died out thousands of years ago - and it has grammatical features that no longer exist in Arabic, Hebrew or Aramaic. The study of Socotri helps understand the deep, prehistoric past - and the subsequent evolution - of all Semitic tongues." - Maitani
For a second there I was like "eeewwww what do you mean 'depending on the animal involved'?!" before I was like "Oh :")" - Eivind
I am maitani on twitter and on g+.
... and also: maitani on frenf.it! http://www.frenf.it/earlyad... - Maitani
Babel's Dawn: In Praise of Verbs - http://www.babelsdawn.com/babels_...
Babel's Dawn: In Praise of Verbs
"One of the regular frustrations of studying for this blog comes from the number of papers I read by people who argue as though, because language and mathematics both manipulate symbols, they can both be described by the same generalizations. They cannot. Take for example the differences that arise from the presence of verbs in language and their absence in mathematics." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
"If we think of a sentence as working like a solar system, then the sentence's sun is its verb. The sentence gets its dynamism from the verb's gravity and all parts of the sentence are related to one another through the verb. Mathematics lacks that kind of unifying authority.." - Maitani
maitani ff'i kapatiyorlar maitani :( - seyif from iPhone
abi hic bozmadi - clara glass
That is so incredibly sad, seyif. I know, but I act as if it wasn't true. - Maitani
adamsın maitani, seni seviyoruz - rehavet
maitaini başkan fetfirikte ekitappaylaşımdan sonra ilk üye olduğum insandı :'ı - Alfonker Tapir
You guys, I am so sad we won't meet on ff any more. Where will you all be after ff? - Maitani
Hey Maitaini, I'm very sorry too. You also happen to be one of the first people here that I've became a follower of, even before the turkish speakers. 4 years ago or something I even asked at Linguistics if there is a linguist of western semitic around, ahah! Anyway, thanks so much for so many interesting feeds that you posted under Linguistics, which I often benefited from... more... - Alfonker Tapir
please give a try to frenf.it/earlyadopters/ maitani. It would be great if you could share your stuff there as well :) - Haukr
Alfonker, right now (and the next time) I can be found on Twitter and on Google+. I am not sure where else I am going to go, I think I'll try frenf.it .... Maybe I will revive my blog. Btw, I think I have been on ff since 2007. When it was acquired by facebook, I never thought it would last as long as it did. - Maitani
If I revive my blog, you'll know from Twitter or G+. - Maitani
see you at twitter then, thanks - Alfonker Tapir
Thomas Piketty Interview About the European Financial Crisis - SPIEGEL ONLINE - http://www.spiegel.de/interna...
Thomas Piketty Interview About the European Financial Crisis - SPIEGEL ONLINE
"In an interview with SPIEGEL, celebrated French economist Thomas Piketty speaks about Alexis Tsipras' election victory in Greece, Europe's inability to fix its financial woes and what EU leaders can learn from the United States." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
Many gods, many voices: the Murty Classical Library is uncovering India’s dazzling literary history - http://www.newstatesman.com/culture...
Many gods, many voices: the Murty Classical Library is uncovering India’s dazzling literary history
Many gods, many voices: the Murty Classical Library is uncovering India’s dazzling literary history
"Classical Indian literary tradition is dizzyingly multicultural and multilingual. The vastness of the subcontinent and the number of peoples and languages it contains ensured this plurality. Administratively, too, a state of multum in parvo prevailed: successions of empires and dynasties only ever managed to rule limited (if large) parts, leaving autonomous regions under different powers. No one empire before the central Asian clan that came to be known in the 16th century as the Mughals managed to bring far-flung areas under a centralised administration and local societies continued to exist even under their expanding rule." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
"From around the beginning of the Common Era for a millennium, Sanskrit held a long, unbroken sway as the language of power and culture before being contested by vernacular languages. Knowledge of Sanskrit would certainly unlock a large quantity of classical Indian literature for modern readers but – as with Europe and Latin – it is possessed by only a select few. Yet Sanskrit allowed... more... - Maitani
Five tales of good and evil https://kenanmalik.wordpress.com/2015...
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"Today being World Book Day, I am publishing five extracts from my book The Quest for a Moral Compass, that explore five books from the ancient and medieval worlds, some well-known, some almost forgotten, but all of which have helped shape our thinking about right and wrong, good and evil – Homer’s Iliad, a foundation stone of Ancient Greek culture; the Mahabharata, the first of the two great epics of Hinduism; Mozi, the only work we have of ancient China’s forgotten philosopher Mo Tzu; the Book of Job from the Pentateuch (or the Old Testament in the Christian tradition); and Hayy Ibn Yaqan, an Islamic masterpiece from the twelfth century that today is almost unknown. (The extract on the Book of Job is not actually an extract – it is a section of The Quest for Moral Compass that I had to cut from the final version to keep the ms to length, so it’s a bonus here.)" - Maitani
I think I need to read that book :) - Eivind
A Calendar Page for March 2015 - Medieval manuscripts blog - http://britishlibrary.typepad.co.uk/digitis...
A Calendar Page for March 2015 - Medieval manuscripts blog
A Calendar Page for March 2015 - Medieval manuscripts blog
"In this month’s border decoration, a roundel for the Feast of the Annunciation is suspended from a perpendicular gothic column. This elaborate architectural design itself encloses a scene showing the Mass of St Gregory, who died on 12th March 604. According to Paul the Deacon’s 8th-century biography of Gregory, the Man of Sorrows appeared as Gregory celebrated mass as Pope, in response to his prayers to convince someone of the doctrine of transubstantiation – that is, Christ’s physical presence in the consecrated host." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
"At the top of the page, there is the Zodiac sign for March: Aries the Ram. At the bottom, there is another scene of agricultural industriousness. Three peasants labour in a fenced-off garden: the men digging and planting fruit trees, the woman pulling up weeds. They are overseen by a gentlewoman, who is holding a small lapdog in her arms, and her female attendant. A large and imposing building, presumably the woman’s residence, stands in the background." - Maitani
The Archaeobotanist: Mesolithic cereal trade in Europe? - http://archaeobotanist.blogspot.de/2015...
The Archaeobotanist: Mesolithic cereal trade in Europe?
The Archaeobotanist: Mesolithic cereal trade in Europe?
"This week's Science includes in ancient sedimentary DNA study by Oliver Smith, Robin Allaby and colleagues from sediments from an archaeological site sealed beneath the English Channel, with evidence that wheat was decomposing on this Mesolithic site 8000 years ago. Such a claim is obvioulsy a big deal for archaeologists, it is counter to our accepted narrative of the introduction of cereals with Neolithic farming immigrants around 6000 years ago. No surprisingly it has received science media attention, both in Science and in New Scientist, as well as a learned commentary from Gregor Larson; and despite a busy teaching week I have been asked for comments. Here I give my full extended comment. While I agree that we really need more evidence to clinch this from additional sites, and I would prefer directly radiocarbon dated grains, I also don't think this requires a complete overhaul of what we know about the introduction of sustained farming around 4000 BC." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
"This report is sure to be heavily debated, and I guess many archaeologists will reject this out of hand. But that is perhaps like the ostrich with its head in the sand. I would certainly be happier with an AMS-dated cereal grain, but this new evidence tells us we need to be actively looking for those Pre-Neolithic traded grains." - Maitani
ABBOV - Alfonker Tapir
AWOL - The Ancient World Online: New Online from the CHS - Shubha Pathak, Divine yet Human Epics: Reflections of Poetic Rulers from Ancient Greece and India - http://ancientworldonline.blogspot.de/2015...
AWOL - The Ancient World Online: New Online from the CHS - Shubha Pathak, Divine yet Human Epics: Reflections of Poetic Rulers from Ancient Greece and India
"New Online from the CHS - Shubha Pathak, Divine yet Human Epics: Reflections of Poetic Rulers from Ancient Greece and India" - Maitani from Bookmarklet
"Acknowledgments Note on Texts and Translations Introduction. Defining Epics through Comparison 1. The Epic Identity of the Iliad and Odyssey: Pindar and Herodotus’ Lofty Legacy 2. The Epic Metaphor of the Rāmāyaṇa and Mahābhārata: Ānandavardhana and Rājaśekhara’s Expedient Influence 3. Listening to Achilles and to Odysseus: Poetic Kings on the Ideal of Kléos in the Homeric Epics 4.... more... - Maitani
AWOL - The Ancient World Online: Online Library of Digitized Sanskrit and Prakrit Manuscript Catalogues - http://ancientworldonline.blogspot.de/2015...
AWOL - The Ancient World Online: Online Library of Digitized Sanskrit and Prakrit Manuscript Catalogues
"This collection of manuscript catalogues is derived almost entirely from the Digital Library of India.  Some come from the Archive.org and the Jain eLibrary.   A great debt of gratitude is due to all these resources for selflessly promoting scholarship." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
"The principle of arrangement follows: Subhas. C. Biswas Bibliographic Survey of Indian Manuscript Catalogues. Being a Union List of Manuscript Catalogues (Delhi: Eastern Book Linkers, 1998)." - Maitani
Wide Urban World: How do big cities differ from small cities (in the ancient past and today)? - http://wideurbanworld.blogspot.de/2015...
Wide Urban World: How do big cities differ from small cities (in the ancient past and today)?
Wide Urban World: How do big cities differ from small cities (in the ancient past and today)?
"Are big cities different from smaller cities mainly in their size? Or do they differ in other ways that go beyond simple population size? Recent research on urban scaling has answered this question definitively for contemporary cities. Large cities ARE different from smaller cities in ways that transcend their size. They aren't simply larger. Yet many of the changes that come with size turn out to be linked systematically to population size." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
"For example, large cities of course have more miles of roads and and electrical cables than smaller cities. But when we look at roads or cable per person (miles per capita), the quantities are smaller for the biggest cities. This makes sense: if you have twice as many people in a city, you don't need twice as many roads, since some of the new people can use existing roads. While this... more... - Maitani
Questo credo che succeda perché le regole della geometria euclidea si applicano a tutte le città. - L'Uomo con la Papera from Flucso
AWOL - The Ancient World Online: Pass the Garum: Eating like the Ancients - http://ancientworldonline.blogspot.de/2015...
AWOL - The Ancient World Online: Pass the Garum: Eating like the Ancients
"In history we tend to look at the big things - the battles, the baddies, the plot and the intrigue - but sometimes it's the average and the everyday which impress most, giving us the tiniest of glimpses into the lives of the long dead." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
"Why 'Pass the Garum'? Garum was a fermented fish sauce which the Romans loved to put in EVERYTHING. So, much as we might say 'pass the salt', a Roman might ask their toga-clad chum to 'pass the garum'. Why food history? I love food, and enjoy cooking. I also love history - I did my degree in Ancient History, and now teach everything else. So, why not combine the two and make something... more... - Maitani
Jayarava's Raves: The Very Idea of Buddhist History - http://jayarava.blogspot.de/2015...
Jayarava's Raves: The Very Idea of Buddhist History
"Readers may know that there is a split in Buddhist studies. On one side are religious traditionalists and mainly British scholars (particularly Richard Gombrich and Wynne at Oxford) who see the early Buddhist texts as a more or less accurate account of Buddhist history. On the other side are religious sceptics (yours truly) and mainly American scholars (particularly Greg Schopen and Don Lopez) who don't think there is anything authentically historical in the suttas." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
"We know this: there is a body of literature we associate with early Buddhism and the early phase of sectarian Buddhism. This literature is preserved, in a language we now call Pali, in major collections of manuscripts in Sri Lanka, Burma and Thailand, with minor collections in Laos, Vietnam and perhaps other places. Substantial parts of several other recensions are preserved in... more... - Maitani
Whence Willow Wattle? http://www.metmuseum.org/visit...
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"An attractive feature of the Bonnefont Herb Garden in winter and early spring is the distinctive wattle used in the raised beds. Medieval gardens, orchards, and property boundaries were enclosed in a variety of ways, including by hedges and wattle fences. In the Bonnefont Herb Garden, our wattle, or hurdles (pictured above), of various heights edge the beds and support the plants. The hurdles and supports are made from willow from the Somerset Levels (wetlands) in England; willow has been grown and woven in Somerset since the late Iron Age. Willow work is still commercially produced in the region and the same family has made our wattle elements for many years." - Maitani
"Medieval woodlands were carefully managed, producing so-called small wood by pollarding (pruning a tree from the top to promote growth well above ground level) and coppicing (cutting a tree back almost to the ground to foster new growth from the stump). Pollarding and coppicing were carried out on a regular rotation, and the resulting new growth provided a steady supply of wood for... more... - Maitani
Würzburg
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From cattle herders to tax farmers - The Unz Review - http://www.unz.com/gnxp...
From cattle herders to tax farmers - The Unz Review
"Reading Strange Parallels, Southeast Asian in a Global Context, I have begun to think about the differences between the eruption of Inner Asian nomads in the early modern period, and in prehistory. The author points out that the arrival of Mughals, and even to a greater extent the Manchu, to the ancient and dense civilizations of South and East Asia did not change the cultural substrate in the main." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
"Yes, Turco-Persian Islamic (“Islamicate”) culture became both prestigious and relatively popular in South Asia. But it was, and still is, a minority tradition set against the indigenous religious system, bracketed under the term Hindu today. In Ching China the Manchu had an even less obvious effect. Arguably they assimilated to the Neo-Confucian mores of the Han elite far more than the Mughals did in India in relation to indigenous South Asian gentry." - Maitani
European languages linked to migration from the east http://www.nature.com/news...
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There Were Giants in the Earth in Those Days http://www.unz.com/gnxp... post by Razib Khan - Maitani
Maybe it's time to revive the hypothesis that Odin was originally a king coming from the east, bringing culture? :) - Eivind
Massive migration from the steppe is a source for Indo-European languages in Europe http://biorxiv.org/content... article by Haak et. al. - Maitani
Comment by Asya Pereltsvaig http://languagesoftheworld.info/histori... - Maitani
Late (not necessarily steppe) split of Proto-Indo-European http://dienekes.blogspot.de/2015... - Maitani
"British History Online (BHO) is pleased to launch version 5.0 of its website. Work on the website redevelopment began in January 2014 and involved a total rebuild of the BHO database and a complete redesign of the site. We hope our readers will find the new site easier to use than ever before." - Maitani
40 brilliant idioms that simply can’t be translated literally | TED Blog - http://blog.ted.com/2015...
40 brilliant idioms that simply can’t be translated literally | TED Blog
"It’s a piece of cake. You can’t put lipstick on a pig. Why add fuel to the fire? Idioms are those phrases that mean more than the sum of their words. As our Open Translation Project volunteers translate TED Talks into 105 languages, they’re often challenged to translate English idioms into their language. Which made us wonder: what are their favorite idioms in their own tongue?" - Maitani from Bookmarklet
"Below, we asked translators to share their favorite idioms and how they would translate literally. The results are laugh-out-loud funny." - Maitani
Does "Die Katze im Sack kaufen" also imply that you've been tricked and didn't get what you thought you bought (which is the Norwegian meaning), or is it just any "blind" purchase? - Eivind
In italian we say "saltare di palo in frasca", similar to the french "Sauter du coq à l’âne" (from pole to leaf), we also have "costare un occhio nella testa" exactly as in spanish “me costó un ojo de la cara” and of course many others. The one I like the most is "sono andato nel pallone", literally "I went into the ball" or "into the big ball". It's up to you to guess the meaning. :-) - Miki
Open Access Ebooks / Publications / The American School of Classical Studies at Athens - http://www.ascsa.edu.gr/index...
Open Access Ebooks / Publications / The American School of Classical Studies at Athens
"Many volumes within the Corinth ("Red Book"), Athenian Agora ("Blue Book"), and Hesperia Supplement series are out of print, and there are no plans to reprint the volumes at least for the next few years. In 2014, the Publications Committee of the ASCSA's Managing Committee voted unanimously to allow PDFs of these out-of-print volumes to be posted to the ASCSA's website as Open Access. You may freely read, download, and share these files under the BY-NC-ND Creative Commons license (non-commercial use; you must cite the ASCSA as the source; you may not make derivatives). The scans were created by JSTOR, and through the ASCSA's Content Sharing Agreement with JSTOR, we can make these PDFs available to individuals at no charge." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
A Walk Through the Gallery - NYTimes.com - http://www.nytimes.com/interac...
"On Tuesday, New Yorkers will get their last chance to see the Museum of Modern Art's "Henri Matisse: The Cut-Outs," a show that gathers about 100 of the artist's painted-paper works — the largest and most extensive presentation of these works ever assembled. The exhibition begins in the 1930s, covering work Matisse started producing toward the end of his life. Can't make it to the museum? Here is the wall-to-wall experience." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
THE CITY OF WORDS by Matthew Bremner http://roadsandkingdoms.com/2015...
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"I am at the 10-day-long Scottish Storytelling Festival in a cramped attic room on Edinburgh’s Royal Mile. And that was “Deacon Brodie Unmasked,” an hour-long investigation of Edinburgh’s 18th century city councillor-cum-boozing-bank robber, William Brodie." - Maitani
"The festival is based on the Scottish Ceilidh—a traditional social gathering—and celebrates and investigates Scottish culture through storytelling. The organizers put on events throughout Scotland, but the festival’s home is Edinburgh, where the country’s most famous stories were born." - Maitani
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