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Tambora eruption caused the year without a summer: Cholera, opium, famine, and Arctic exploration. - http://www.slate.com/article...
Tambora eruption caused the year without a summer: Cholera, opium, famine, and Arctic exploration.
"Most have heard of the Battle of Waterloo, but who has heard of the volcano called Tambora? No school textbook I’ve seen mentions that only two months before Napoleon’s final defeat in 1815, the faraway Indonesian island of Sumbawa was the site of the most devastating volcanic eruption on Earth in thousands of years." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
"The death toll was around 100,000 people from the thick pyroclastic flows of lava; the tsunami that struck nearby coasts; and the thick ash that blanketed Southeast Asia’s farmlands, destroyed crops, and plunged it into darkness for a week. Both events—Napoleon’s defeat and the eruption—had monumental impacts on human history. But while a library of scholarship has been devoted to Napoleon’s undoing at Waterloo, the scattered writings on Tambora would scarcely fill your in-tray." - Maitani
Five Flood Stories You Didn’t Know About | (A)theologies | Religion Dispatches - http://www.religiondispatches.org/archive...
Five Flood Stories You Didn’t Know About | (A)theologies | Religion Dispatches
"The first known flood story comes from Sumer in the tale of Atra-hasis (19th century, BCE). This story sets the basic elements of the ancient genre: gods try to eradicate humanity, while a flood hero builds a boat to save the animals. A tragicomedy about polytheism starring petty gods who complain like tired parents annoyed by their noisy children. With plans to destroy a boisterous humanity, they are thwarted not once but three times by the flood hero’s personal god and eminent trickster, Enki. With each divine attempt at total genocide, Enki gives the flood hero secret knowledge about which god to appease with a sacrifice. This worked against the first two rounds of disease and drought. However, Enki had to get creative for the third and final attempt. For the deluge, Enki instructs the flood hero to build a boat for family and fauna." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
A well-written article, pleasurable to read, and informative. - Maitani
Der Frühling hält Einzug auf meiner Dachterrasse!
terrasseapril2014.jpg
I want a Dachterrasse! - Eivind
ahaha Eivind - ani
:-) This is my favourite season of the year. I can't wait to replant the pots with flowers. It is still a bit too early though, there may be frost in the nights. From May to September, I spend most evenings in my roof garden. - Maitani
“There’s a map for that!” Visualizing the Medieval World | medievalfragments - http://medievalfragments.wordpress.com/2014...
“There’s a map for that!” Visualizing the Medieval World | medievalfragments
“There’s a map for that!” Visualizing the Medieval World | medievalfragments
"While we tend to use maps to show distance, medieval maps are more focused on relationships. Probably the most common type of medieval mappa mundi, or world map, was the O-T map (so called because it looks like an O with a T in it) which clearly depicted the continents as the settling places of Noah’s sons Shem (Asia), Japeth (Europe) and Cham (Africa). It was based on Isidore of Seville’s seventh-century description of the physical world." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
Cross Stitch Just Got Cool ~ Kuriositas - http://www.kuriositas.com/2014...
Cross Stitch Just Got Cool ~ Kuriositas
"Cross stitch is one of the oldest forms of embroidery in the world. So, it’s little surprise that its reputation is of something rather fusty that your grandmother might enjoy. However, cross stitch has a new fan base and, led by types of Ambra. A 30 year old Italian crafter, stitcher, pattern-designer and nerd she has helped rehabilitate the ancient art and it is now - officially - cool again. If that seems a little tongue in cheek then perhaps it is – one look at Ambra’s amazing designs, however, and you know that there is much truth in what we say. She has created hundreds of patterns all of which can be seen and downloaded on her website, cloudsfactory.net." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
BBC News - Cambodia: Ancient Angkor temples added to Street View - http://www.bbc.com/news...
BBC News - Cambodia: Ancient Angkor temples added to Street View
"Cambodia's most famous ancient temple, Angkor Wat, can now be visited virtually on Google Street View, it appears." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
Awesome :) - Eivind
Literary Review - Jonathan Keates on citrus fruits in Italy - http://www.literaryreview.co.uk/keates_...
Literary Review - Jonathan Keates on citrus fruits in Italy
"The Land Where Lemons Grow: The Story of Italy and Its Citrus Fruit By Helena Attlee (Particular Books 248pp £20)" - Maitani from Bookmarklet
"Goethe's 'The Apprenticeship of Wilhelm Meister', a neglected masterpiece if ever there was, is known nowadays for a single line from a ballad sung by Mignon, the daughter of a wandering musician. 'Know'st thou the land where the lemon trees bloom?' begins her mysterious song, describing an imagined world of blue skies, marble statues and thunderous waterfalls, not without a lurking... more... - Maitani
Dienekes’ Anthropology Blog: Where pastoralist met farmer and East met West (Spengler et al. 2014) - http://dienekes.blogspot.de/2014...
Dienekes’ Anthropology Blog: Where pastoralist met farmer and East met West (Spengler et al. 2014)
"Archaeobotanical data from Central Eurasian pastoralist campsites have major implications for our understanding of late prehistoric agriculture across Asia. Sites like Tasbas and Begash illustrate the earliest acquisition of domesticated crops by mobile pastoralists and illustrate their capacity to participate in exchanges that bridged East Asian and Central Asian farming cultures by the early third millennium BC." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
"Mobile pastoralists living in (southern) Central Asian alluvial fans and along the mountainous spine of Central Eurasia also integrated farming into their own domestic strategies (at least) by the mid second millenniumBC. Their pastoral mobility and the formation of extensive networks throughout the IAMC helped spread particular grain morphotypes and a mixed plant cohort of wheat,... more... - Maitani
International Dunhuang Project: Photographs of Samye Monastery in 1935–36 - http://idpuk.blogspot.de/2014...
International Dunhuang Project: Photographs of Samye Monastery in 1935–36
"We have just digitized a series of photographs of Samye monastery taken in 1935–36. These prints are from the papers of F.W. Thomas, Tibetologist and librarian at the India Office Library. They were sent to him by Hugh Richardson, another Tibetologist who was stationed in Tibet as the British Trade Agent for several years. There are two different sets of photos. Richardson posted the first set of thirteen to Thomas in August 1938, explaining that they were taken at a consecration ceremony held at Samye after recent restoration works. Here is the text of Richardson's letter:" - Maitani from Bookmarklet
Lists of the Best Sentences — Opening, Closing, and Otherwise — in English-Language Novels - Open Culture - http://www.openculture.com/2014...
Lists of the Best Sentences — Opening, Closing, and Otherwise — in English-Language Novels - Open Culture
"You’ve almost certainly read all three of these sentences before, or even if you don’t remember the lines in particular, you’ve probably read the famous novels they come from. The American Scholar highlights them as three of the ten finest in English-language literature, alongside other sentences composed by the likes of F. Scott Fitzgerald, John Hersey, and Ernest Hemingway. Writing at Poynter.org, Roy Peter Clark explains just what makes these sentences so great, from Joyce’s use of “forge” (“For the narrator it means to strengthen metal in fire. But it also means to fake, to counterfeit, perhaps a gentle tug at [the protagonist's] hubris”) to Austen’s structural elegance (“Who could not admire a sentence with such a clear demarcation beginning, middle, and end?”) to Nabokov’s reflection of his narrator’s self-delusion." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
"At The Atlantic, Joe Fassler has separately collected 22 writers’ own favorite novel-opening lines, a list that includes the one from Nabokov’s highly quotable novel and another from later in Joyce’s oeuvre:" - Maitani
The only first line that came to mind when I tried to think of my favorites was: "I come from Des Moines. Somebody had to." :) - Eivind
Does the unconscious know when you’re being lied to? « Mind Hacks - http://mindhacks.com/2014...
"The headlines BBC: Truth or lie – trust your instinct, says research British Psychological Society: Our subconscious mind may detect liars Daily Mail: Why you SHOULD go with your gut: Instinct is better at detecting lies than our conscious mind The Story Researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, have shown that we have the ability to unconsciously detect lies, even when we’re not able to explicitly say who is lying and who is telling the truth." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
Odd Job Man and Language! by Jonathon Green, review - Telegraph - http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture...
Odd Job Man and Language! by Jonathon Green, review - Telegraph
"'Slang represents humanity at its most human,” writes Jonathon Green in one of his signature declarative sentences, which leave a slight sense of the author looking around, whiskers a-quiver, to see if anyone is going to yell out “scuzzball” or “swamp-breath”, before he plunges on to supply us with a further definition: slang is the lexis of “our less admirable but absolutely unavoidable selves”." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
"Slang’s first compilers were chippy individualists, routinely beset by financial worries and complex marital lives. They were never grandees like the 70-odd team beavering away still on the Oxford English Dictionary in Great Clarendon Street (less than 30 yards from where I live in Oxford). They numbered Francis Grose (1731-91), the son of a Swiss jeweller, who was so fat that his... more... - Maitani
The Doctor and the Saint | The Caravan - A Journal of Politics and Culture - http://caravanmagazine.in/reporta...
The Doctor and the Saint | The Caravan - A Journal of Politics and Culture
"ANNIHILATION OF CASTE is the nearly eighty-year-old text of a speech that was never delivered.* When I first read it I felt as though somebody had walked into a dim room and opened the windows. Reading Dr Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar bridges the gap between what most Indians are schooled to believe in and the reality we experience every day of our lives." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
"My father was a Hindu, a Brahmo. I never met him until I was an adult. I grew up with my mother, in a Syrian Christian family in Ayemenem, a small village in communist-ruled Kerala. And yet all around me were the fissures and cracks of caste. Ayemenem had its own separate “Parayan” church where “Parayan” priests preached to an “untouchable” congregation. Caste was implied in peoples’... more... - Maitani
Arundhati Roy, the Not-So-Reluctant Renegade http://www.nytimes.com/2014... - Maitani
An Open Letter to Ms. Arundhati Roy Concerning B. R. Ambedkar's Annihilation of Caste - and Roy's response http://www.3quarksdaily.com/3quarks... - Maitani
The Rationalist and the Romantic - Namit Arora on Arundhati Roy’s introduction to Dr. BR Ambedkar’s Annihilation of Caste http://blog.shunya.net/shunyas... - Maitani
How to Search the Invisible Web - OnlineUniversities.com - http://www.onlineuniversities.com/article...
How to Search the Invisible Web - OnlineUniversities.com
"What we access every day through popular search engines like Google, Yahoo or Bing is referred to as the Surface Web. These familiar search engines crawl through tens of trillions of pages of available content (Google alone is said to have indexed more than 30 trillion web pages) and bring that content to us on demand. As big as this trove of information is, however, this represents only the tip of the iceberg. Eric Schmidt, the CEO of Google, was asked to estimate the size of the World Wide Web. He estimated that of roughly 5 million terabytes of data, Google has indexed roughly 200 terabytes, or only .004% of the total internet." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
"Open access journal databases (OAJD) are compilations of free scholarly journals maintained in a manner that facilitates access by researchers and others who are seeking specific information or knowledge. Because these databases are comprised of unlinked content, they are located in the invisible web. The vast majority of these journals are of the highest quality, with peer reviews and... more... - Maitani
A Calendar Page for April 2014 - Medieval manuscripts blog - http://britishlibrary.typepad.co.uk/digitis...
A Calendar Page for April 2014 - Medieval manuscripts blog
A Calendar Page for April 2014 - Medieval manuscripts blog
A Calendar Page for April 2014 - Medieval manuscripts blog
"Happy April everybody! And what better way to start the month than with some more sensational pages from the stupendous Huth Hours? If you have already been following our blog – and who hasn’t? – you’ll know that our calendar of the year is taken from this beautiful 15th-century manuscript (for more information, please see our post A Calendar Page for January 2014)." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
"So what delights does April bring us? The promise of early spring often yields images of very pleasant labours indeed for this month, and these calendar pages from the Huth Hours are no exception. Our first folio gives us a roundel miniature of a well-dressed couple courting while walking along a garden path. The themes of fertility, birth, and rebirth are emphasised by the flowering... more... - Maitani
BBC News - The six key moments of the Cold War relived - http://www.bbc.com/news...
BBC News - The six key moments of the Cold War relived
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"The US, UK and France were allied with the communist Soviet Union during World War Two, but as it became clear victory in the war was approaching new battle lines started to be drawn. What followed was 45 years of tension, marked by espionage and proxy wars involving client states, all undertaken with the knowledge of the nuclear catastrophe that actual war would bring. People who experienced the key events of the conflict describe how it affected them - and Cold War expert Scott Lucas, of Birmingham University and EA WorldView, explains how they fitted into the bigger picture." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
IN DEFENCE OF DIVERSITY | Pandaemonium - http://kenanmalik.wordpress.com/2013...
IN DEFENCE OF DIVERSITY | Pandaemonium
IN DEFENCE OF DIVERSITY | Pandaemonium
"... Behind contemporary hostility to immigration lies a sense of the dissolution of such identity, of the erosion of common values. There lies also the breakdown of traditional political mechanisms, the growing chasm between the elite and the public, and the abandonment by mainstream parties of their traditional working class constituencies. As a result, argues Goodhart, what he calls the ‘left behind’ white working class experience immigration ‘as a loss, either directly because they lived in a neighbourhood that was rapidly changed by it or indirectly because their working class culture and institutions seemed to be pushed aside by the same market forces that then ushered in the newcomers’." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
If only she had read my essay first http://kenanmalik.wordpress.com/2014... - Maitani
That's a really good essay. - Eivind
"In the 1960s and 1970s Muslim immigrants did not yearn to express their differences but, rather, demanded that they should not be treated differently. Only subsequently did Muslims, from a generation that was ironically more integrated than that of their parents, begin to assert their cultural distinctiveness. Why? In part because of the imposition of multicultural policies and the creation of a more tribal nation." - Maitani
In his response to Melanie Phillips' anti-immigration-rhetoric, he points out a few more arguments that are also important, such as the one cited above. - Maitani
Melanie Phillips responds http://kenanmalik.wordpress.com/2014... - Maitani
"A peaceful sun gilded her evening" | OUPblog - http://blog.oup.com/2014...
"A peaceful sun gilded her evening" | OUPblog
"On 31 March 1855 – Easter Sunday – Charlotte Brontë died at Haworth Parsonage. She was 38 years old, and the last surviving Brontë child. In this deeply moving letter to her literary advisor W. S. Williams, written on 4 June 1849, she reflects on the deaths of her sisters Anne and Emily." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
“In the Ukraine”? “In Ukraine”? “On Ukraine”?—Clarifying the Issue | GeoCurrents - http://www.geocurrents.info/cultura...
“In the Ukraine”? “In Ukraine”? “On Ukraine”?—Clarifying the Issue | GeoCurrents
"A recent article in The Washington Post by Katie Zezima asked whether the country should be referred to as “the Ukraine” or simply “Ukraine”, without the definite article. Recent usage of the article with the country’s name by several American politicians apparently raised some ire on the part of certain Ukrainian pundits. Former US ambassador to Ukraine William B. Taylor Jr. explains: “I don’t want to say it’s derogatory, but it’s putting it in a subordinate position. When you talk about ‘the Ukraine’, that suggests that you really don’t think that Ukraine is a sovereign independent country.”" - Maitani from Bookmarklet
"It is time for GeoCurrents to dispel some myths about this issue. First, note that some differences in toponym usage or pronunciation correlate with one’s political views. Take, for example, the pronunciation of the second vowel in the country name Iraq: it can be pronounced either as in father or as in fat. As discovered by Stanford linguistics graduate students Lauren Hall-Lew,... more... - Maitani
How We Retrieve Memories - Brain Basics #1 - Scientific American - http://www.scientificamerican.com/video...
"Have you ever had a moment of temporary amnesia when you can't recall a certain word or someone's name? That's because your brain wasn't able to recreate the pattern of activity that occurred when the memory was stored. Learn more in the first of a series of videos from Scientific American MIND." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
I hope I'll manage to watch at least part of the video. - Maitani
I've also read as you get older this occurs not because of dementia, because you just know too much stuff. It becomes hard to retrieve everything efficiently. - Todd Hoff
Ima go with that, Todd. It's like that guy on Charlie Rose says... what was his name anyway? I can picture him... I've read several of his books... I almost had it just then... ach... it's gone. Oh well. #JustKidding #EricKandel - Jkram|ɯɐɹʞſ
International Dunhuang Project: #MuseumMastermind and #MuseumWeek - http://idpuk.blogspot.de/2014...
International Dunhuang Project: #MuseumMastermind and #MuseumWeek
International Dunhuang Project: #MuseumMastermind and #MuseumWeek
International Dunhuang Project: #MuseumMastermind and #MuseumWeek
"This week IDP UK has been taking part in Twitter’s #MuseumWeek event and today for the ‘Test Your Knowledge’ #MuseumMastermind day we prepared two quizzes and a bonus question. For the first quiz we asked our followers to identify the languages and scripts of manuscripts, and for the second we asked them to name the pictured buddha or bodhisattva. The bonus question was to tell us the printing date of the Diamond Sutra currently on display in the Sir John Ritblat Gallery at the British Library. The answers to all our questions are shown below." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
The post displays more wonderful samples of languages and scripts of ancient manuscripts. - Maitani
A few of our favourite things - the complete series http://idpuk.blogspot.de/2014... - Maitani
Working Memory and The Movies Streaming In Our Heads | Talking back, Scientific American Blog Network - http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/talking...
Working Memory and The Movies Streaming In Our Heads | Talking back, Scientific American Blog Network
"Peter Carruthers began his career studying philosophy as an undergraduate at the University of Leeds, an outpost for Wittgenstein scholarship. Carruthers waded through the Austrian-British philosopher’s thinking for the early part of his career, getting a doctorate from Oxford and publishing books on Wittgenstein along the way." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
What the bilingual brain tells us about language learning | OUPblog - http://blog.oup.com/2014...
What the bilingual brain tells us about language learning | OUPblog
"One of the most common questions people ask revolves around when and how to learn a second language. One common view is that earlier is better. There is good evidence for this view. A number of studies have found that the earlier a person learns a second language, the better they perform on a number of tests. Particularly sensitive to age is a person’s ability to speak without an accent and to detect speech sounds that are not present in their native language. For example, infants can detect sounds from a language not in their environment at six months of age. By 10 months of age they lose this ability. This suggests that the ability to detect speech sounds from around the globe is available to all infants but slowly fades away. Another arena where age plays a role is in the processing of grammar. Those who learn a second language later in life do not perform as well on tests of grammar as early learners. Hence, the ability to learn grammar and speech sounds appears to be very dependent on the age that one first learns a language." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
"Despite this general rule, there are some very interesting exceptions. For example, Christophe Pallier and his colleagues tested a group of adults who had been born in Korea and adopted as children in France between the ages of 4-8. This group of adults were asked to listen to sentences in Korean, French, or an unknown language. The results revealed no difference in their brain... more... - Maitani
There were cases of people who lost access to one or both languages after suffering brain damage.... - yedi
ayrıca bu portekizce çok tehlikeli bir lisan hep uyarıyoruz, dinletemiyoruz. - yedi
Babel's Dawn: Sentences and Events - http://www.babelsdawn.com/babels_...
Babel's Dawn: Sentences and Events
"The current thesis favored on this blog is that language is a system for directing one another's attention so that we can share perceptions, real, imaginary or metaphorical. As it stands now I propose that human evolution began with the formation of communities based on cooperation and sharing. Once our ancestor moved from social to communal arrangements the normal, individualistic, Darwinian impediments to sharing gave way to the group benefits of cooperation and trust. Language became a part of the new order in which, initially, people spoke literally, pointing out perceptible details of reality." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
how does that relate to the concept of "shared intentionality" of Tomasello then? #insandili - Jarolim Gayri
Wattle and daub - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki...
Wattle and daub - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wattle and daub - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"Wattle and daub is a composite building material used for making walls, in which a woven lattice of wooden strips called wattle is daubed with a sticky material usually made of some combination of wet soil, clay, sand, animal dung and straw. Wattle and daub has been used for at least 6000 years and is still an important construction material in many parts of the world. Many historic buildings include wattle and daub construction, and the technique is becoming popular again in more developed areas as a low-impact sustainable building technique." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
"The wattle and daub technique was used already in the Neolithic period. It was common for houses of a Linear pottery and Rössen cultures of Central Europe, but is also found in Western Asia (Çatalhöyük, Shillourokambos) as well as in North America (Mississippian Culture) and South America (Brazil). In Africa it is common in the architecture of traditional houses such as those of the... more... - Maitani
I looked up WATTLE because of Anika's post on Chinampas ("floating gardens") http://ff.im/1gDrYZ - Maitani
They are also a great law firm. - Todd Hoff
Oriental Institute | IRAN - Persepolis - http://oi.uchicago.edu/gallery...
Oriental Institute | IRAN - Persepolis
"IRAN: Persepolis - Apadana of Darius (ca. 520 B.C.) - Detail of the middle register of the left side of the eastern stairway, showing foreigners bringing tribute." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
Deep Habits: Should You Track Hours or Milestones? - Study Hacks - Cal Newport - http://calnewport.com/blog...
Deep Habits: Should You Track Hours or Milestones? - Study Hacks - Cal Newport
"Some of you have been requesting to hear more about my own struggles to live deeply in a distracted world. In this spirit, I want discuss strategies for completing important but non-urgent projects. In my experience, there are two useful things to track with respect to this type of work:" - Maitani from Bookmarklet
"The advantage of tracking milestones, for example, is that the urge to achieve a clear outcome can inspire you to hustle; i.e., drop everything for a couple days and just hammer on the project until it gets where you need it to be. Sometimes my projects fall into a state of stasis where hustle of this type is needed to get unstuck." - Maitani
"The advantage of tracking hours, on the other hand, is that many of the important but non-urgent projects I pursue cannot be forced. I can commit, for example, to finishing a proof in a week, but this doesn’t mean I will succeed. Some proofs never come together; some take months (or years); others fall quickly. It’s hard to predict. Tracking hours in this context ensures, at the very least, that these projects are getting a good share of my time, even if I can’t predict what will finish and when." - Maitani
A Concise History of Geological Maps: From Outcrop to the first Map | History of Geology, Scientific American Blog Network - http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/history...
A Concise History of Geological Maps: From Outcrop to the first Map | History of Geology, Scientific American Blog Network
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"March 23, 1769 marks the birthday of pioneering stratigrapher William Smith, who is also credited with creating the first useful geological map, however like many other great accomplishments also Smith’s idea of depicting the distribution of rocks on a topographic map didn’t materialize out of nowhere." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
"The German mining engineer Georgius Agricola (1494-1555) dedicated in his “De re metallica” (1556) - an early textbook on mining technologies – an entire chapter to the distribution of valuable rocks in earth’s crust. The written description is correlated with various figures, showing in a sort of combined landscape – section the distribution, thickness and direction inside the mountain of the mineralized veins." - Maitani
The Holozene Lattice - by Razib Khan http://www.unz.com/gnxp...
razib440px-PazuzuDemonAssyria1stMilleniumBCE-190x300.jpg
"Joe Pickrell and David Reich have put up a preprint at BioRxiv, Towards a new history and geography of human genes informed by ancient DNA. Since it’s a preprint at BioRxiv you can 1) read it for free 2) comment on it. It is a magesterial review of “where we are,” though close readers of this weblog may not find much that is new in their survey of the empirical results which are coming out of human population genomics and ancient DNA analysis. In regards to this let me highlight two sentences. First, it is now clear that long-range migration, admixture and population replacement have been the rule rather than the exception in human history. Second, the serial founder effect model is no longer a reasonable null hypothesis for modeling the ancient spread of anatomically modern humans around the globe. For the second I’m thinking in particular of Sohini Ramanchandran’s 2005 paper, Support from the relationship of genetic and geographic distance in human populations for a serial founder effect originating in Africa, though the model is older than that obviously, as is made clear in the acknowledgments." - Maitani
The Normans and Empire - by David Bates http://blog.oup.com/2014...
normans4568.jpg
"The expansion of the peoples calling themselves the Normans throughout northern and southern Europe and the Middle East has long been one of the most popular and written about topics in medieval history. Hence, although devoted mainly to the history of the cross-Channel empire created by William the Conqueror’s conquest of the English kingdom in 1066 and the so-called loss of Normandy in 1204, I wanted to contribute to these discussions and to the ongoing debates about the impact of this expansion on the histories of the nations and cultures of Europe. That peoples from a region of northern France should become conquerors is one of the apparently inexplicable paradoxes of the subject. The other one is how the conquering Normans apparently faded away, absorbed into the societies they had conquered or within the kingdom of France." - Maitani
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