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Mind & Brain

Mind & Brain

"This is an swag interdisciplinary point of entry to such related fields as cognitive psychology, philosophy of mind, neuroscience, and linguistics. Mind refers to the aspects of intellect and consciousness manifested as combinations of thought, perception, memory, emotion, will and imagination, including all of the brain's conscious and unconscious cognitive processes." See also: CogSci at Scoop.it http://bit.ly/126hhWA CogSci at Quora http://bit.ly/126hSr3
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Maitani
"For several millennia, people have worried about whether or not they have free will. What exactly worries them? No single answer suffices. For centuries the driving issue was about God’s supposed omniscience. If God knew what we were going to do before we did it, in what sense were we free to do otherwise? Weren’t we just acting out our parts in a Divine Script? Were any of our so-called decisions real decisions? Even before belief in an omniscient God began to wane, science took over the threatening role. Democritus, the ancient Greek philosopher and proto-scientist, postulated that the world, including us, was made of tiny entities—atoms—and imagined that unless atoms sometimes, unpredictably and for no reason, interrupted their trajectories with a random swerve, we would be trapped in causal chains that reached back for eternity, robbing us of our power to initiate actions on our own." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
Maitani
Philosophy Monkey: Steven Pinker - Linguistics as a Window to Understand the Brain - http://berto-meister.blogspot.de/2014...
Philosophy Monkey: Steven Pinker - Linguistics as a Window to Understand the Brain
"One of the things I first enjoyed when I was introduced to philosophy was its recursive nature: we could use thought to investigate the nature, the rules, the structure and the limits of thought itself (and what that could tell us about the human mind). For a very similar reason I have a certain appreciation and fondness for linguistics. Most of our communication takes place through language, and linguists are hard at work trying to understand what they can about human cognition, nature and culture, by paying close attention to the way in which we use language." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
"In the following lecture, Steven Pinker provides a fascinating introduction to questions such as how syntax (the study of linguistic structure), phonology (the study of sound), semantics (the study of meaning) and pragmatics (the study of the social and cultural role and context of language), all help us to understand how language works. He also provides a lesson on the nature of the... more... - Maitani
Maitani
Myth-conceptions: How myths about the brain are hampering teaching -- ScienceDaily - http://www.sciencedaily.com/release...
Myth-conceptions: How myths about the brain are hampering teaching -- ScienceDaily
"Myths about the brain are common among teachers worldwide and are hampering teaching, according to new research. The report highlights several areas where new findings from neuroscience are becoming misinterpreted by education, including brain-related ideas regarding early educational investment, adolescent brain development and learning disorders such as dyslexia and ADHD." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
"Teachers in the UK, Holland, Turkey, Greece and China were presented with seven so-called 'neuromyths' and asked whether they believe them to be true." - Maitani
Maitani
Deep Habits: Conquer Hard Tasks With Concentration Circuits - Study Hacks - Cal Newport - http://calnewport.com/blog...
Deep Habits: Conquer Hard Tasks With Concentration Circuits - Study Hacks - Cal Newport
Deep Habits: Conquer Hard Tasks With Concentration Circuits - Study Hacks - Cal Newport
"Today I needed to finish a tough chunk of writing. The ideas were complicated and I wasn’t quite sure how best to untangle the relevant threads and reweave them into something appealing. I knew I was in for some deep work and I was worried about my ability to see it through to the end." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
"I call this approach the concentration circuit as it cycles you through a circuit of locations to keep your concentration levels elevated. To be clear, most of my deep work sessions are decidedly less interesting. They take place in my office with the door closed. But sometimes I need something extra. If I’m feeling uninspired or the task is particularly complicated, I look for ways to... more... - Maitani
Maitani
How I Rewired My Brain to Become Fluent in Math - Issue 17: Big Bangs - Nautilus - http://nautil.us/issue...
"I was a wayward kid who grew up on the literary side of life, treating math and science as if they were pustules from the plague. So it’s a little strange how I’ve ended up now—someone who dances daily with triple integrals, Fourier transforms, and that crown jewel of mathematics, Euler’s equation. It’s hard to believe I’ve flipped from a virtually congenital math-phobe to a professor of engineering." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
"One day, one of my students asked me how I did it—how I changed my brain. I wanted to answer Hell—with lots of difficulty! After all, I’d flunked my way through elementary, middle, and high school math and science. In fact, I didn’t start studying remedial math until I left the Army at age 26. If there were a textbook example of the potential for adult neural plasticity, I’d be Exhibit A." - Maitani
Maitani
The Barrier of Meaning « Another Word For It - http://tm.durusau.net/?p=56846
"The author discusses the “AI-problem” with Stanislaw Ulam. Ulam makes reference to the history of the “AI-problem” and then continues:" - Maitani from Bookmarklet
"Well, said Stan Ulam, let us play a game. Imagine that we write a dictionary of common words. We shall try to write definitions that are unmistakeably explicit, as if ready to be programmed. Let us take, for instance, nouns like key, book, passenger, and verbs like waiting, listening, arriving. Let us start with the word “key.” I now take this object out of my pocket and ask you to... more... - Maitani
Maitani
We are more rational than those who nudge us – Steven Poole – Aeon - http://aeon.co/magazin...
We are more rational than those who nudge us – Steven Poole – Aeon
"Humanity’s achievements and its self-perception are today at curious odds. We can put autonomous robots on Mars and genetically engineer malarial mosquitoes to be sterile, yet the news from popular psychology, neuroscience, economics and other fields is that we are not as rational as we like to assume. We are prey to a dismaying variety of hard-wired errors. We prefer winning to being right. At best, so the story goes, our faculty of reason is at constant war with an irrational darkness within. At worst, we should abandon the attempt to be rational altogether." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
You had me at "a scientised version of original sin" :) A very interesting read. Obviously, I'd say, "econs" are poor yardsticks for human rationality. - Eivind
Maitani
Your Brain on Metaphors - The Chronicle Review - The Chronicle of Higher Education - http://chronicle.com/article...
Your Brain on Metaphors - The Chronicle Review - The Chronicle of Higher Education
"It sounds like a question that only a linguist could love. But neuroscientists have been trying to answer it using exotic brain-scanning technologies. Their findings have varied wildly, in some cases contradicting one another. If they make progress, the payoff will be big. Their findings will enrich a theory that aims to explain how wet masses of neurons can understand anything at all. And they may drive a stake into the widespread assumption that computers will inevitably become conscious in a humanlike way." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
"The hypothesis driving their work is that metaphor is central to language. Metaphor used to be thought of as merely poetic ornamentation, aesthetically pretty but otherwise irrelevant. "Love is a rose, but you better not pick it," sang Neil Young in 1977, riffing on the timeworn comparison between a sexual partner and a pollinating perennial. For centuries, metaphor was just the place where poets went to show off." - Maitani
If you are interested in the topic, you should read the two articles; they complement each other. - Maitani
Maitani
Memories of errors foster faster learning -- ScienceDaily - http://www.sciencedaily.com/release...
Memories of errors foster faster learning -- ScienceDaily
"Using a deceptively simple set of experiments, researchers have learned why people learn an identical or similar task faster the second, third and subsequent time around. The reason: They are aided not only by memories of how to perform the task, but also by memories of the errors made the first time." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
""In learning a new motor task, there appear to be two processes happening at once," says Reza Shadmehr, Ph.D., a professor in the Department of Biomedical Engineering at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. "One is the learning of the motor commands in the task, and the other is critiquing the learning, much the way a 'coach' behaves. Learning the next similar task goes... more... - Maitani
"The surprise finding in the current study, described in Science Express on Aug. 14, is that not only do such errors train the brain to better perform a specific task, but they also teach it how to learn faster from errors, even when those errors are encountered in a completely different task. In this way, the brain can generalize from one task to another by keeping a memory of the errors." - Maitani
I still can't see how the experiment they describe leads to the conclusions posed in the paper. - Maitani
Perhaps in over simplifying, but I didn't need science to know this. - MoTO: Team Marina from Android
What they describe are simple experiences everyone knows, and I can't find anything unexpected in the experiment. Why I was interested in this, was the assertion that "The surprise finding in the current study, described in Science Express on Aug. 14, is that not only do such errors train the brain to better perform a specific task, but they also teach it how to learn faster from... more... - Maitani
Maitani
Expecting to teach enhances learning, recall -- ScienceDaily - http://www.sciencedaily.com/release...
"People learn better and recall more when given the impression that they will soon have to teach newly acquired material to someone else, suggests new research. Findings of the study suggest that simply telling learners that they would later teach another student changes their mindset enough so that they engage in more effective approaches to learning than did their peers who simply expected a test." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
""The immediate implication is that the mindset of the student before and during learning can have a significant impact on learning, and that positively altering a student's mindset can be effectively achieved through rather simple instructions," Nestojko said." - Maitani
Ogretmen ogretir. The teachers gonna teach. - clara glass from iPhone
bu iyi - hulusi
Maitani
All You Need To Know About the 10% Brain Myth, in 60 Seconds | Science Blogs | WIRED - http://www.wired.com/2014...
All You Need To Know About the 10% Brain Myth, in 60 Seconds | Science Blogs | WIRED
All You Need To Know About the 10% Brain Myth, in 60 Seconds | Science Blogs | WIRED
"The new Luc Besson movie Lucy, starring Scarlett Johansson, opens in theatres countrywide tomorrow. It’s based on the immortal myth that we use only 10 percent of our brains. Johansson’s character is injected with drugs that allow her to access 100 percent of her brain capacity. She subsequently gains the ability to learn Chinese in an instant, beat up bad guys, and throw cars with her mind (among other new talents). Morgan Freeman plays neuroscientist Professor Norman, who’s built his career around the 10 percent claim. “It is estimated most human beings use only 10 percent of the brain’s capacity,” he says, “Imagine if we could access 100 percent.”" - Maitani from Bookmarklet
"As it happens, I’ve written a book all about brain myths (Great Myths of the Brain; due out this November). I thought I’d use what I learned to give you a 60-second explainer on the 10 percent myth." - Maitani
Maitani
How children categorize living things -- ScienceDaily - http://www.sciencedaily.com/release...
"Name everything you can think of that is alive." How would a child respond to this question? Would his or her list be full of relatives, animals from movies and books, or perhaps neighborhood pets? Would the poppies blooming on the front steps make the list or the oak tree towering over the backyard? The children's responses in a recent study revealed clear convergences among distinct communities but also illuminated differences among them." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
Maitani
"The philosopher John Gray, in his review of my book The Quest for a Moral Compass, claimed that I ‘airbrush, Soviet-style’ all ‘repugnant and troubling elements of rationalism’ that I ‘prefer not to know’ about ‘sleazy side of rationalism’, such as racial science or the history of slavery. It is a strange claim given that the thread that runs through virtually all my work has been the paradoxes of modernity, and the contradictions within rationalism and liberalism. Hence two books of the history of the idea of race and another on the difficulties faced by science in making sense of the human. (My response to the Gray review is here.)" - Maitani from Bookmarklet
"The difference between my view of rationalism and modernity and that of John Gray is not that one recognizes the ‘dark side of modernity’ and the other airbrushes it away. It rests, rather, on how we view the roots of the problem. For Gray, and for thinkers like him, the problem lies in human nature. Humans, he argues in his book Straw Dogs, ‘cannot be other than irrational’ but delude... more... - Maitani
Maitani
"Why We Can't Learn Like Kids Most of us English speakers can't tell the difference between Seung, Seong and Sung now, but back when we were babies we could. A large body of work shows that babies possess a remarkable ability to distinguish all sounds in all languages. But between six and 12 months of age, they begin homing in on their native language's sounds. They become experts in their own language, and as a consequence they lose their facility with the unfamiliar sounds of foreign languages. As it turns out, it's challenging to regain that ability." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
"Some of the best data on this phenomenon come from studies of Japanese adults learning to hear the difference between r and l. Why the Japanese? For one, because the r-versus-l problem is notorious; Japanese speakers tend to do little better than chance when attempting to tell their rocks from their locks. Second, they know they have this difficulty, and many will happily volunteer to... more... - Maitani
Maitani
This Is Your Brain on Writing by Carl Zimmer - NYTimes.com - http://www.nytimes.com/2014...
"A novelist scrawling away in a notebook in seclusion may not seem to have much in common with an NBA player doing a reverse layup on a basketball court before a screaming crowd. But if you could peer inside their heads, you might see some striking similarities in how their brains were churning." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
Maitani
When it comes to numbers, culture counts -- ScienceDaily - http://www.sciencedaily.com/release...
When it comes to numbers, culture counts -- ScienceDaily
"A new study finds that in a Bolivian rainforest society, children learn to count just like in the US, but on a delayed timetable." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
"American children learn the meanings of number words gradually: First they understand "one," then they add "two, "three," and "four," in sequence. At that point, however, a dramatic shift in understanding takes place, and children grasp the meanings of not only "five" and "six," but all of the number words they know." - Maitani
"Scientists have also seen this pattern in children raised speaking other languages, including Japanese and Russian. In all of these industrialized nations, number learning begins around age 2, and children fully understand numbers and counting by the age of 4 or 5." - Maitani
Maitani
Happy Birthday Tetris! « Mind Hacks - http://mindhacks.com/2014...
"As well as hijacking the minds and twitchy fingers of puzzle-gamers for 30 years, Tetris has also been involved in some important psychological research. My favourite is Kirsh and Maglio’s work on “epistemic action“, which showed how Tetris players prefer to rotate the blocks in the game world rather than mentally. This using the world in synchrony with your mental representations is part of what makes it so immersive, I argue." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
Maitani
Important peculiarities of memory http://mindhacks.com/2014...
"A slide from what looks like a fascinating talk by memory researcher Robert Bjork is doing the rounds on Twitter." - Maitani
"The talk has just happened at the Association for Psychological Science 2014 conference and it describes some ‘Important peculiarities of memory’." - Maitani
Maitani
A Dialogue On Doublethink - Less Wrong - http://lesswrong.com/lw...
A Dialogue On Doublethink - Less Wrong
"Often, when we attempt to accept contradictory statements as correct, it causes cognitive dissonance--that nagging, itchy feeling in your brain that won't leave you alone until you admit that something is wrong. Like when you try to convince yourself that staying up just a little longer playing 2048 won't have adverse effects on the presentation you're giving tomorrow, when you know full well that's exactly what's going to happen." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
Maitani
What’s the evidence on using rational argument to change people’s minds? https://www.contributoria.com/issue...
reasonheader_5319c4add63a707e780000cd.jpg
"Are we, the human species, unreasonable? Do rational arguments have any power to sway us, or is it all intuition, hidden motivations, and various other forms of prejudice?" - Maitani
Maitani
Talking Brains: New book on language production!: The Oxford Handbook of Language Production ed. by Matthew Goldrick, Victor Ferreira, and Michele Miozzo - http://www.talkingbrains.org/2014...
"The Oxford Handbook of Language Production provides a comprehensive, multidisciplinary review of the mechanisms involved in language production, examining their computational, linguistic, cognitive, and brain bases. Chapters in the Handbook examine all forms of language production (spoken, written, and signed) and how language production mechanisms interface with the wider cognitive system. Authors of the chapters discuss a wide array of levels of representation, from sentences to individual words, speech sounds and articulatory gestures, extending to discourse and the broader social context of speaking." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
Maitani
The War on Reason - Paul Bloom - The Atlantic - http://www.theatlantic.com/magazin...
The War on Reason - Paul Bloom - The Atlantic
The War on Reason - Paul Bloom - The Atlantic
"Scientists and philosophers argue that human beings are little more than puppets of their biochemistry. Here's why they're wrong." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
"Aristotle’s definition of man as a rational animal has recently taken quite a beating." - Maitani
"Part of the attack comes from neuroscience. Pretty, multicolored fMRI maps make clear that our mental lives can be observed in the activity of our neurons, and we’ve made considerable progress in reading someone’s thoughts by looking at those maps. It’s clear, too, that damage to the brain can impair the most-intimate aspects of ourselves, such as the capacity to make moral judgments... more... - Maitani
That's just what it wants you to believe. :) - Ken Gidley
Maitani
A history of the mind in 25 parts « Mind Hacks - http://mindhacks.com/2014...
A history of the mind in 25 parts « Mind Hacks
"BBC Radio 4 has just kicked off a 25-part radio series called ‘In Search of Ourselves: A History of Psychology and the Mind’. Because the BBC are not very good at the internet, there are no podcasts – streaming audio only, and each episode disappears after seven days. Good to see the BBC are still on the cutting edge of 20th Century media." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
Maitani
Better way to deal with bad memories suggested -- ScienceDaily - http://www.sciencedaily.com/release...
Better way to deal with bad memories suggested -- ScienceDaily
"A simple and effective emotion-regulation strategy that has neurologically and behaviorally been proven to lessen the emotional impact of personal negative memories, researchers have shown. "Sometimes we dwell on how sad, embarrassed, or hurt we felt during an event, and that makes us feel worse and worse. But we found that instead of thinking about your emotions during a negative memory, looking away from the worst emotions and thinking about the context, like a friend who was there, what the weather was like, or anything else non-emotional that was part of the memory, will rather effortlessly take your mind away from the unwanted emotions associated with that memory," the researchers suggest." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
""Suppression is bottling up your emotions, trying to put them away in a box. This is a strategy that can be effective in the short term, but in the long run, it increases anxiety and depression," explains a co-author. "The strategy of focusing on non-emotional contextual details of a memory, on the other hand, is as simple as shifting the focus in the mental movie of your memories and then letting your mind wander."" - Maitani
hmmm, seems a little too simplistic, so I guess now therapists will start asking people to think of the weather instead of their turmoil? :-| - Halil
I think this can be helpful when we obsess over a negative memory, providing a somewhat different, wider perspective, and thus some relief. To me, this seems to be a possible way between suppressing memories and obsessing about them. It's low-key advice, so I think I'll try it when I need to. :-) - Maitani
Maitani
Classifying Cognitive Style Across Disciplines - Association for Psychological Science - http://www.psychologicalscience.org/index...
Classifying Cognitive Style Across Disciplines - Association for Psychological Science
"Educators have tried to boost learning by focusing on differences in learning styles. Management consultants tout the impact that different decision-making styles have on productivity.  Various fields have developed diverse approaches to understanding the way people process information. A new report from psychological scientists aims to integrate these disciplines by offering a new, integrated framework of cognitive styles that bridges different terminologies, concepts, and approaches." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
"“This new taxonomy of cognitive styles offers a clear categorization of different types of styles from basic and applied fields and thus eliminates the confusing labeling of styles, making it possible to integrate the findings on individual differences in cognition across different disciplines,” says researcher Maria Kozhevnikov, Associate Professor in psychology at the National University of Singapore and Associate in Neuroscience at Massachusetts General Hospital and lead author of the new report." - Maitani
Cognitive Style as Environmentally Sensitive Individual Differences in Cognition http://psi.sagepub.com/content... - Maitani
Maitani
Kids' earliest memories might be earlier than they think -- ScienceDaily - http://www.sciencedaily.com/release...
Kids' earliest memories might be earlier than they think -- ScienceDaily
"Four- to 13-year-olds in upstate New York and Newfoundland, Canada, probed their memories when researchers asked: "You know, some kids can remember things that happened to them when they were very little. What is the first thing you can remember? How old were you at that time?" The researchers then returned a year or two later to ask again about earliest memories -- and at what age the children were when the events occurred." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
""The age estimates of earliest childhood memories are not as accurate as what has been generally assumed," report Qi Wang of Cornell University and Carole Peterson of Memorial University of Newfoundland in the March 2014 online issue of Developmental Psychology. "Using children's own age estimates as the reference, we found that memory dating shifted to later ages as time elapsed."" - Maitani
I'm constantly amazed at things my kids remember at age 2. Out of the blue stuff, too. And the postdating is interesting. I've noticed that I've done that and it's kind of wild to see it happen so quickly in my kids. There's a memory my daughter remembers happening (she was 2.5). Last week, when she mentioned it, she was sure she was almost 4. Had to show her a photo. - Anika
Maitani
Does the unconscious know when you’re being lied to? « Mind Hacks - http://mindhacks.com/2014...
"The headlines BBC: Truth or lie – trust your instinct, says research British Psychological Society: Our subconscious mind may detect liars Daily Mail: Why you SHOULD go with your gut: Instinct is better at detecting lies than our conscious mind The Story Researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, have shown that we have the ability to unconsciously detect lies, even when we’re not able to explicitly say who is lying and who is telling the truth." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
Halil
Why can't a man think like a woman, and a woman think like a man? - http://medicalxpress.com/news...
Whether our brains differ structurally is a hot topic in neuroscience. Recently, a neuroimaging study suggested that female brains are functionally more suited to social skills including language, memory and multi-tasking, while men are hard-wired to be better at perception and co-ordinated movement. But are these abilities innate to our gender, or are they influenced by the environment? Are these studies subject to gender biases themselves? - Halil from Bookmarklet
The gender specific toys children play with - for example dolls for girls and cars for boys – could be changing how their brains develop. Many toys aimed at boys involve physical skills and logic, whereas many girl-aimed toys involve nurturing behaviours and socialising. These kinds of gender-specific toys and encouraging only gender-specific play could limit potential in both sexes.... more... - Halil
Maitani
How We Retrieve Memories - Brain Basics #1 - Scientific American - http://www.scientificamerican.com/video...
"Have you ever had a moment of temporary amnesia when you can't recall a certain word or someone's name? That's because your brain wasn't able to recreate the pattern of activity that occurred when the memory was stored. Learn more in the first of a series of videos from Scientific American MIND." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
I hope I'll manage to watch at least part of the video. - Maitani
I've also read as you get older this occurs not because of dementia, because you just know too much stuff. It becomes hard to retrieve everything efficiently. - Todd Hoff
Maitani
Working Memory and The Movies Streaming In Our Heads | Talking back, Scientific American Blog Network - http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/talking...
Working Memory and The Movies Streaming In Our Heads | Talking back, Scientific American Blog Network
"Peter Carruthers began his career studying philosophy as an undergraduate at the University of Leeds, an outpost for Wittgenstein scholarship. Carruthers waded through the Austrian-British philosopher’s thinking for the early part of his career, getting a doctorate from Oxford and publishing books on Wittgenstein along the way." - Maitani from Bookmarklet
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