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Open Chemical Data

Open Chemical Data

Feed of Open Chemical Data. Criterion: the data source must provide a (CML)RSS feed and the data must use an Open License (no 'public domain').
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Open Chemical Data
Open Chemical Data
Data from: Plant-derived differences in the composition of aphid honeydew and their effects on colonies of aphid-tending ants - http://datadryad.org/resourc...
In plant–ant–hemipteran interactions, ants visit plants to consume the honeydew produced by phloem-feeding hemipterans. If genetically based differences in plant phloem chemistry change the chemical composition of hemipteran honeydew, then the plant's genetic constitution could have indirect effects on ants via the hemipterans. If such effects change ant behavior, they could feed back to affect the plant itself. We compared the chemical composition of honeydews produced by Aphis nerii aphid clones on two milkweed congeners, Asclepias curassavica and Asclepias incarnata, and we measured the responses of experimental Linepithema humile ant colonies to these honeydews. The compositions of secondary metabolites, sugars, and amino acids differed significantly in the honeydews from the two plant species. Ant colonies feeding on honeydew derived from A. incarnata recruited in higher numbers to artificial diet, maintained higher queen and worker dry weight, and sustained marginally more...
Open Chemical Data
Data from: Fruit secondary compounds mediate the retention time of seeds in the guts of Neotropical fruit bats - http://datadryad.org/resourc...
Plants often recruit frugivorous animals to transport their seeds, however gut passage can have varying effects on plant fitness depending on the physical and chemical treatment of the seed, the distance seeds are transported, and the specific site of deposition. One way in which plants can mediate the effects of gut passage on fitness is by producing fruit secondary compounds that influence gut retention time. Using frugivorous bats (Carollia perspicillata: Phyllostomidae) and Neotropical plants in the genus Piper, we compared gut retention time of seeds among five plant species (P. colonense, P. peltatum, P. reticulatum, P. sancti-felicis, and P. silvivagum) and investigated the role of fruit amides (piperine, piplartine and whole fruit amide extracts from P. reticulatum) in mediating gut retention time. Our results showed interspecific differences in gut retention time; P. reticulatum seeds passed most slowly, while P. silvivagum and P. colonense seeds passed most rapidly....
Open Chemical Data
Data from: How innovative are new drugs? A retrospective study of new drug launches in the UK, 2001-2012 - http://datadryad.org/resourc...
Objectives: Innovative new drugs offer potential benefits to patients, healthcare systems, governments, and the pharmaceutical industry. Recent data suggest the annual number of new drugs launched in the UK has increased in recent years, and we sought to understand whether this represents increasing numbers of highly innovative new drugs being made available or the introduction of increasing numbers of new drugs with limited additional therapeutic value. Design and setting: Retrospective observational study of new drug entries in the British National Formulary (BNF). Primary and secondary outcome measures: Number of new drugs launched in the UK each year (based on first appearance in the BNF) from 2001 to 2012, including new chemical entities and new biological drugs, categorised by degree of innovativeness according to published criteria that incorporate a broad perspective of innovation. Results: Highly innovative, moderately innovative and slightly innovative drugs made up 26%, 18%...
Open Chemical Data
Data from: Multiple stressors and the cause of amphibian abnormalities - http://datadryad.org/resourc...
The repeated occurrence of abnormal amphibians in nature points to ecological imbalance, yet identifying causes of these abnormalities has proved complex. Multiple studies have linked amphibian abnormalities to chemically contaminated areas, but inference about causal mechanisms is lacking. Here we use a high incidence of abnormalities in Alaskan wood frogs to strengthen inference about the mechanism for these abnormalities. We suggest that limb abnormalities are caused by a combination of multiple stressors. Specifically, toxicants lead to increased predation, resulting in more injuries to developing limbs and subsequent developmental malformations. We evaluated a variety of putative causes of frog abnormalities at 21 wetlands on the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, south-central Alaska, USA, between 2004 and 2006. Variables investigated were organic and inorganic contaminants, parasite infection, abundance of predatory invertebrates, UVB, and temperature. Logistic regression and...
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Data from: Trans-generational parasite protection associated with paternal diet - http://datadryad.org/resourc...
Multiple generations of hosts are often exposed to the same pathogens, favoring the evolution of trans-generational defenses. Because females have more opportunities to transfer protective molecules to offspring, many studies have focused on maternally derived protection. However, males of many species can transfer compounds along with sperm, including chemicals that could provide protection. Here, we assess maternally and paternally derived protection in a monarch butterfly-protozoan parasite system where parasite resistance is heavily influenced by secondary plant chemicals, known as cardenolides, present in the larval diet of milkweed plants. We reared monarch butterflies on medicinal and non-medicinal milkweed species, then measured resistance of their offspring to infection. We also measured cardenolide content in adult monarchs reared on the two species, and in the eggs that they produced. We found that offspring were more resistant to infection when their fathers were reared on...
Open Chemical Data
Data from: Fine-mapping nicotine resistance loci in Drosophila using a multiparent advanced generation inter-cross population - http://datadryad.org/resourc...
Animals in nature are frequently challenged by toxic compounds, from those that occur naturally in plants as a defense against herbivory, to pesticides used to protect crops. On exposure to such xenobiotic substances, animals mount a transcriptional response, generating detoxification enzymes and transporters that metabolize and remove the toxin. Genetic variation in this response can lead to variation in the susceptibility of different genotypes to the toxic effects of a given xenobiotic. Here we use Drosophila melanogaster to dissect the genetic basis of larval resistance to nicotine, a common plant defense chemical and widely used addictive drug in humans. We identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the trait using the DSPR (Drosophila Synthetic Population Resource), a panel of multiparental advanced intercross lines. Mapped QTL collectively explain 68.4% of the broad-sense heritability for nicotine resistance. The two largest-effect loci—contributing 50.3 and 8.5% to the...
Open Chemical Data
Data from: Additive genetic variation for tolerance to estrogen pollution in natural populations of Alpine whitefish (Coregonus sp., Salmonidae) - http://datadryad.org/resourc...
The evolutionary potential of natural populations to adapt to anthropogenic threats critically depends on whether there exists additive genetic variation for tolerance to the threat. A major problem for water-dwelling organisms is chemical pollution, and among the most common pollutants is 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), the synthetic estrogen that is used in oral contraceptives and that can affect fish at various developmental stages, including embryogenesis. We tested whether there is variation in the tolerance to EE2 within Alpine whitefish. We sampled spawners from two species of different lakes, bred them in vitro in a full-factorial design each, and studied growth and mortality of embryos. Exposure to EE2 turned out to be toxic in all concentrations we tested (≥1 ng/L). It reduced embryo viability and slowed down embryogenesis. We found significant additive genetic variation in EE2-induced mortality in both species, that is, genotypes differed in their tolerance to estrogen...
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Data from: Molecular study of bacterial diversity within the trophosome of the vestimentiferan tubeworm Ridgeia piscesae - http://datadryad.org/resourc...
A large proportion of the faunal biomass in hydrothermal vent ecosystems relies on symbiotic relationships, with bacteria as a source of nutrition. Whereas multiple symbioses have been observed in diverse vent hosts, siboglinid tubeworms have been thought to harbour a single endosymbiont phylotype affiliated to the Gammaproteobacteria. In the case of the Northeast Pacific vestimentiferan Ridgeia piscesae, two previous studies suggested the presence of more than one symbiont. The possibility of multiple, and possibly habitat-specific, symbionts in R. piscesae provided a potential explanation for the tubeworm’s broad ecological niche, compared with other hydrothermal vent siboglinids. This study further explored the diversity of trophosome bacteria in R. piscesae using two methodological approaches not yet applied to this symbiosis. We carried out 454-pyrosequencing on trophosome samples from 46 individual worms and used catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization...
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Data from: The role of photorespiration during the evolution of C4 photosynthesis in the genus Flaveria - http://datadryad.org/resourc...
C4 photosynthesis represents a most remarkable case of convergent evolution of a complex trait, which includes the reprogramming of the expression patterns of thousands of genes. Anatomical, physiological, and phylogenetic and analyses as well as computational modeling indicate that the establishment of a photorespiratory carbon pump (termed C2 photosynthesis) is a prerequisite for the evolution of C4. However, a mechanistic model explaining the tight connection between the evolution of C4 and C2 photosynthesis is currently lacking. Here we address this question through comparative transcriptomic and biochemical analyses of closely related C3, C3-C4, and C4 species, combined with Flux Balance Analysis constrained through a mechanistic model of carbon fixation. We show that C2 photosynthesis creates a misbalance in nitrogen metabolism between bundle sheath and mesophyll cells. Rebalancing nitrogen metabolism requires anaplerotic reactions that resemble at least parts of a basic C4...
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Open Chemical Data
Data from: Predatory fish sounds can alter crab foraging behavior and influence bivalve abundance - http://datadryad.org/resourc...
The risk of predation can have large effects on ecological communities via changes in prey behaviour, morphology and reproduction. Although prey can use a variety of sensory signals to detect predation risk, relatively little is known regarding the effects of predator acoustic cues on prey foraging behaviour. Here we show that an ecologically important marine crab species can detect sound across a range of frequencies, probably in response to particle acceleration. Further, crabs suppress their resource consumption in the presence of experimental acoustic stimuli from multiple predatory fish species, and the sign and strength of this response is similar to that elicited by water-borne chemical cues. When acoustic and chemical cues were combined, consumption differed from expectations based on independent cue effects, suggesting redundancies among cue types. These results highlight that predator acoustic cues may influence prey behaviour across a range of vertebrate and invertebrate...
Open Chemical Data
Open Chemical Data
Data from: Natural enemy ecology: comparing the effects of predation risk, infection risk and disease on host behavior - http://datadryad.org/resourc...
1. Growing interest in unifying the field of natural enemy ecology has revealed similarities between predation and parasitism. In parallel with predation, parasite infection – and even the threat of infection – can alter host traits and indirectly affect community interactions. Nonetheless, few studies have considered multiple mechanisms of natural enemy-induced behavioural alteration in parallel (e.g. effects before and after enemy contact) or the factors that drive variation in behavioural responses. 2. We first evaluated how the threat of infection by a virulent trematode (Ribeiroia ondatrae) compared to the well studied risk of predation in triggering inducible defences in amphibian hosts, prior to direct contact with either enemy. We then evaluated five separate factors that influenced the magnitude of parasite-induced behavioural changes after successful transmission. 3. In both the laboratory and an outdoor mesocosm experiment, we found no evidence that tadpoles of two species...
Open Chemical Data
Open Chemical Data
InChI=1S/C102H172N36O32S7/c1-50(2)34-63-91(161)127-62(26-33-171-5)90(160)129-64(35-53-22-24-54(143)25-23-53)92(162)130-65(36-78(148)149)93(163)135-72-48-175-173-45-69(80(108)150)133-86(156)58(18-8-12-29-105)121-76(146)39-11 - http://cb.openmolecules.net/inchi...
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Data from: Two new sterile species of Loxospora (Sarrameanaceae: lichenized ascomycetes) from the mid-Atlantic coastal plain - http://datadryad.org/resourc...
Molecular phylogenetic analyses of mtSSU and nrITS sequence data show that two new crustose species belong to the genus Loxospora. Both species are sterile asexually reproducing crustose lichens from the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain of eastern North America, and are chemically similar to L. lecanoriformis in producing 2-0-methylperlatolic acid. Loxosopora assateaguensis is a sorediate species that is described from a single locality on Assateague Island in Maryland. Loxospora confusa is a granulose-isidiate species that is widespread in the Mid-Atlantic with a disjunct population in the Joccassee Gorges of the southern Appalachian Mountains.
Open Chemical Data
Data from: A locus in Drosophila sechellia affecting tolerance of a host plant toxin - http://datadryad.org/resourc...
Many insects feed on only one or a few types of host. These host specialists often evolve a preference for chemical cues emanting from their host and develop mechanisms for circumventing their host’s defenses. Adaptations like these are central to evolutionary biology, yet our understanding of their genetics remains incomplete. Drosophila sechellia, an emerging model for the genetics of host specialization, is an island endemic that has adapted to chemical toxins present in the fruit of its host plant, Morinda citrifolia. Its sibling species, D. simulans, and many other Drosophila species do not tolerate these toxins and avoid the fruit. Earlier work showed that a region with a strong effect on tolerance to the major toxin, octanoic acid, was on chromosome arm 3R. Using a novel assay we narrowed this region to a small span near the centromere containing 18 genes, including three odorant binding proteins. It has been hypothesized that the evolution of host specialization is facilitated...
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