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Science Online

Science Online

A room dedicated to online scientific communication. Previously: Science Blogging 2008.
Eric Logan
A Nobel laureate's formula for the universe | CERN -
A Nobel laureate's formula for the universe | CERN
Nobel laureate François Englert at CERN last week. The equation on the blackboard describes the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism that gives particles mass - Eric Logan from Bookmarklet
He looks so smug. Like no one else has ever thought of that. Oh wait... - Ken Morley
Eric Logan
Squeak! Ancient Helium Escaping from Yellowstone. -
Squeak! Ancient Helium Escaping from Yellowstone.
Helium is just a tiny fraction of the gases escaping Yellowstone each day. The park produces about 350 lbs. (160 kilograms) of helium gas each day, but 44 million to 110 million lbs. (20 million to 50 million kg) of carbon dioxide daily, Lowenstern said. Even so, the quantity of helium-4 in Yellowstone's gas emissions is hundreds to thousands of times greater than it should be — a sign that the crust is releasing its ancient stores of the rare isotope, the researchers said. - Eric Logan from Bookmarklet
I remember reading some time ago that helium was getting harder to come by. Seems someone should find a way to capture what's being given off... - Spidra Webster
Eric Logan
Steyn et al. versus Mann | Climate Etc. -
Steyn et al. versus Mann | Climate Etc.
Mark Steyn has just filed to countersue Michael Mann for $20M. Excerpts: 130. Plaintiff [Mann] has engaged in a pattern of abusive litigation designed to chill freedom of speech and to stifle legitimate criticism of Plaintiff’s work. He is currently suing Dr Tim Ball in British Columbia over a hoary bit of word play (“should be in the state pen, not Penn State”) applied to innumerable Pennsylvanians over the years. Having initiated the suit, Dr Mann then stalled the discovery process, so that the BC suit is now entering its third year – Mann’s object being to use the process as a punishment, rather than any eventual trial and conviction. See Mann vs Ball et al, British Columbia VLC-S-S-111913 (2011) (exhibit attached). 131.At the other end of the spectrum, Plaintiff and his Counsel have issued demands that have no basis in law, as they well know – including the preposterous assertion, in response to a parody video by “Minnesotans for Global Warming”, that “Professor Mann’s likeness”... more... - Eric Logan from Bookmarklet
Zorawar Singh
Zorawar Singh
neutrinos held responsible for the difference of matter at different locations in space
Eric Logan
APS March Meeting 2014 - Event - Causes and implications of the growing divergence between climate model simulations and observations -
APS March Meeting 2014 - Event - Causes and implications of the growing divergence between climate model simulations and observations
For the past 15+ years, there has been no increase in global average surface temperature, which has been referred to as a 'hiatus' in global warming. By contrast, estimates of expected warming in the first several decades of 21st century made by the IPCC AR4 were 0.2C/decade. This talk summarizes the recent CMIP5 climate model simulation results and comparisons with observational data. The most recent climate model simulations used in the AR5 indicate that the warming stagnation since 1998 is no longer consistent with model projections even at the 2\% confidence level. Potential causes for the model-observation discrepancies are discussed. A particular focus of the talk is the role of multi-decadal natural internal variability on the climate variability of the 20th and early 21st centuries. The ``stadium wave'' climate signal is described, which propagates across the Northern Hemisphere through a network of ocean, ice, and atmospheric circulation regimes that self-organize into a... more... - Eric Logan from Bookmarklet
Eric Logan
To Make Natural Gas a Good Fuel, Find the "Super-Emitters" - Scientific American -
To Make Natural Gas a Good Fuel, Find the "Super-Emitters" - Scientific American
Gas likes to escape. That's bad news for the atmosphere when the gas in question is methane, the primary component in natural gas that is a much stronger greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. But burning natural gas results in half the greenhouse gas pollution than coal, making it appealing as fuel in an era of combating climate change. Thanks to a bonanza of natural gas liberated from deep shales by new techniques, the U.S. is burning more and more of the fuel—and considering using more natural gas in more places, such as fuel for trucking. But if the amount of methane escaping is too high, such widespread use might prove a disaster for climate change. And that's why a group of scientists set out to better estimate how much methane is escaping in the U.S. To do that, they surveyed more than 200 sets of field measurements and scientific papers from the past 20 years to learn whether increasing use of natural gas could prove a climate boon or bane. "A relatively small leakage rate can... more... - Eric Logan from Bookmarklet
Eric Logan
We're One Step Closer to Nuclear Fusion Energy - Wired Science -
We're One Step Closer to Nuclear Fusion Energy - Wired Science
Scientists with the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory announced today that they have achieved a critical step in fusion research: For the first time, their hydrogen fuel has given off more energy than it took in. Though an important milestone, the result does not mean that your Delorean is soon going to sport a Mr. Fusion reactor. NIF would need to sustain temperatures and pressures much greater than they are currently capable of before they can harness fusion energy. Nuclear fusion is the energy source of the stars. Deep in our sun’s belly, hydrogen atoms slam into one another at high speed, getting mashed together to form helium atoms and releasing copious amounts of energy. Creating viable fusion energy here on Earth has been a dream since the dawn of the Atomic Age. With true fusion power, the amount of water you use in a single shower could provide all your energy needs for a year. But for six decades, fusion has remained a far-off dream.... more... - Eric Logan from Bookmarklet
Eric Logan
Physics - Neutrino Experiments Come Closer to Seeing CP Violation -
Physics - Neutrino Experiments Come Closer to Seeing CP Violation
Show all
Charge-parity (CP) violation—evidence that the laws of physics are different for particles and antiparticles—is often invoked as a “must” to explain why we observe more matter than antimatter in the universe. But the CP violation observed in interactions involving quarks is insufficient to explain this asymmetry. As a result, many theorists are looking toward leptons—and, specifically, neutrinos—for additional sources of CP violation. Researchers running the Tokai to Kamioka (T2K) experiment—a particle physics experiment at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC)—have now made an important contribution toward the search for CP violation in neutrinos. Writing in Physical Review Letters, the T2K collaboration reports the strongest evidence to date for the appearance of electron neutrinos from a pure muon neutrino beam [1]. Their measurement allows them to determine a fundamental parameter of the standard model of particle physics, called θ13, which can in turn be used to... more... - Eric Logan from Bookmarklet
Symmetry violations make me unhappy and yet … it seems that I wouldn't be here if it weren't for them :) - Amit Patel
Eric Logan
Jet Propulsion Laboratory | News -
Jet Propulsion Laboratory | News
NASA's Cassini spacecraft has obtained the highest-resolution movie yet of a unique six-sided jet stream, known as the hexagon, around Saturn's north pole. This is the first hexagon movie of its kind, using color filters, and the first to show a complete view of the top of Saturn down to about 70 degrees latitude. Spanning about 20,000 miles (30,000 kilometers) across, the hexagon is a wavy jet stream of 200-mile-per-hour winds (about 322 kilometers per hour) with a massive, rotating storm at the center. There is no weather feature exactly, consistently like this anywhere else in the solar system. - Eric Logan from Bookmarklet
Eric Logan
The Coldest Spot in the Known Universe - NASA Science -
The Coldest Spot in the Known Universe - NASA Science
“We’ll begin,” says Thompson, “by studying Bose-Einstein Condensates.” In 1995, researchers discovered that if you took a few million rubidium atoms and cooled them near absolute zero, they would merge into a single wave of matter. The trick worked with sodium, too. In 2001, Eric Cornell of the National Institute of Standards & Technology and Carl Wieman of University of Colorado shared the Nobel Prize with Wolfgang Ketterle of MIT for their independent discovery of these condensates, which Albert Einstein and Satyendra Bose had predicted in the early 20th century. If you create two BECs and put them together, they don't mix like an ordinary gas. Instead, they can "interfere" like waves: thin, parallel layers of matter are separated by thin layers of empty space. An atom in one BEC can add itself to an atom in another BEC and produce – no atom at all. - Eric Logan from Bookmarklet
Eric Logan
NASA to Create Coldest Known Location in the Universe -
NASA scientists intend to lower temperatures in the lab to 100-pico-Kelvin, or just “one ten billionth of a degree above absolute zero,” the temperature at which it is theorized, that thermal activity of all atoms ceases. The researchers theorize that when objects are exposed to the extreme cold temperatures in the Cold Atom Lab, new forms of matter will be created as the notion of solids, liquids and gases will no longer apply. This newly created matter is known as quantum matter and is studied in probabilities rather than the relative certainties that make up the laws of physics under “normal” conditions. In the quantum realm, matter can behave in vastly different ways, even appearing in more than one place simultaneously. Thompson describes the planned work as “entering the realm of the unknown” and no one is certain where it will lead at this point. The NASA research team believes that they will be able to create work in this proposed coldest known location in the universe in... more... - Eric Logan from Bookmarklet
Bluesun 2600
Microsoft Adds Momentum to “Open Science” | Re/code -
Microsoft Adds Momentum to “Open Science” | Re/code
"Momentum continues to build behind the “open science movement,” propelling the debate over publication of scholarly works and the scientific process itself. Last week, Microsoft Research announced it was adopting a policy that allows it to retain a license for research submitted to conferences or publishers in order to post it to a freely accessible online site as well. And earlier this week, pharmaceutical giant Johnson & Johnson said it will release data from clinical trials, through an agreement with the Yale University Open Data Access Project. The decisions represent at least a subtle shift in the standard corporate impulse to retain a death grip on any research that could potentially make its way into products. To be sure, Microsoft isn’t about to start giving away the raw code behind Office. But they’re loosening the reins on the research division, allowing their published work to reach beyond those who can afford expensive industry journals and conferences. In J&J’s case,... more... - Bluesun 2600 from Bookmarklet
Eric Logan
Climate Change's Inherent Uncertainties — Quadrant Online -
Climate Change's Inherent Uncertainties — Quadrant Online
Virtually all the scientists directly involved in climate prediction are aware of the enormous problems and uncertainties still associated with their product. How then is it that those of them involved in the latest report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) can put their hands on their hearts and maintain there is a 95 per cent probability that human emissions of carbon dioxide have caused most of the global warming that has occurred over the last several decades? Bear in mind that the representation of clouds in climate models (and of water vapour, which is intimately involved with cloud formation) is such as to amplify the forecast warming from increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide—on average over most of the models—by a factor of about three. In other words, two-thirds of the forecast rise in temperature derives from this particular model characteristic. Despite what the models are telling us—and perhaps because it is models that are telling us—no scientist... more... - Eric Logan from Bookmarklet
Bear in mind too that no scientist close to the problem and in his right mind, when asked the specific question, would say there is only a very small possibility (that is, less than 5 per cent) that internal ocean behaviour could be a major cause of the warming over the past half-century. He would be particularly careful not to make such a statement now that there has been no... more... - Eric Logan
Excellent article by the former Director of the Institute of Antarctic and Southern Ocean Studies, University of Tasmania, and Chief Research Scientist of the CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Australia's leading government scientific climate research institute. [You should use quotes, Eric, to indicate you didn't write it. waggy-waggy. ;<) ] - MRW_8
Point taken. I used the bookmarklet. I rarely post a second portion of the article, but I hoped one of the catatrophists on FF might read it. - Eric Logan
OK. Got your attention. ;-) Paltridge makes the point at the end of his first 'Bear in mind' paragraph not copied here, "If he [climate scientist] is not sure that clouds amplify global warming, he cannot be sure that most of the global warming is a result of increasing carbon dioxide." Lock and load. These are model shortcomings. - MRW_8
Eric, you've highlighted an extraordinarily wise article by someone who not only has academic credentials that few can match but who during his long career has held critical positions that few could contest. It's a pity that few Americans will read this. - MRW_8
How FDA and 23andMe Dance Around Evidence That Is Not There -
On July 20, 2010, Andrew Alexander, founder and director of easyDNA, received a letter from the US Food and Drug Administration. The FDA had noticed that easyDNA was marketing the "Genetic Predisposition Health Test, a home-use device that is intended to allow individuals to discover whether they are genetically predisposed towards developing a number of diseases and medical conditions, including cardiovascular conditions, different types of cancers, disorders of the immune system, diabetes as well as medical conditions related to ageing," a test that the FDA had not approved. - Halil from Bookmarklet
Less than four years later, and without much discussion in public, almost all of the 17 companies have stopped selling personal genome tests: some have completely exited the business, others are selling other tests or have matured into successful biotech companies. But two of them are still in business. - Halil
Eric Logan
The Big Question in the climate change debate, as traditionally and conventionally posed, is: “is global warming caused by humans?” To those of us who know a little about climate science, it’s clearly an over-simplification, since climate scientists typically consider both anthropogenic and natural factors as part of the equation. The IPCC version of the Big Question is “is more than half of global warming caused by humans?” In the IPCC universe, the quest for the answer to the Big Question is known as attribution. Even though it’s not really black and white, the big question is used as if it is, and determines who you are. Are you a “warmist” or a “skeptic”? To be properly pigeonholed, you must answer the Big Question. And to answer it, you must understand it. That, however, may not be as easy as it seems. - Eric Logan from Bookmarklet
Eric Logan
UK Parliamentary Hearing on the IPCC | Climate Etc. -
UK Parliamentary Hearing on the IPCC | Climate Etc.
A fascinating hearing on the IPCC was held today by the UK Parliament Energy and Climate Climate Change Committee. The link to hearing video is [here]. The witnesses: Professor Sir Brian Hoskins, Grantham Institute, Imperial College London, Professor Myles Allen, University of Oxford University, and Dr Peter Stott, Met Office Professor Richard Lindzen, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Nicholas Lewis, Climate researcher, and Donna Laframboise, Author I listened to the entire hearing this morning, I really didn’t have 3 hours to spare in today’s schedule, but I couldn’t resist. It was definitely worth listening to. A quick reaction to the form (rather than the substance). I found this format to be much more illuminating and informative than the typical Congressional hearing in the U.S., where the members posture and pontificate and try to catch out the witnesses with ‘gotcha’ questions. By contrast the UK MP’s had really done their homework and asked very good questions, with a minimum of ‘gotcha’ type questions. - Eric Logan from Bookmarklet
Eric Logan
Polar drilling problems revealed - Nature News. -
Polar drilling problems revealed - Nature News.
Over the past year, researchers, engineers and officials involved in the US$12-million drilling project, funded by the UK Natural Environment Research Council, have carried out and responded to several internal reviews into the reasons for its failure. And now, in a paper under review by the Annals of Glaciology, Siegert, who is based at the University of Bristol, UK, and his colleagues have summarized the problems that they suffered at Lake Ellsworth and laid out options for putting them right. They think that several years of engineering work will be required to develop improved technology for a more reliable drill, but they say that success is achievable. “I am glad to see that they plan to publish their drilling efforts,” says John Priscu, a glaciologist at Montana State University in Bozeman who has worked on similar lake-drilling projects in western Antarctica. “It will quell rumours and provide a solid bit of groundwork on which they can move forward.” Lake Ellsworth is one of... more... - Eric Logan from Bookmarklet
Eric Logan
Long-Term Climate Warming Trend Sunstained in 2013 - NASA Science -
Long-Term Climate Warming Trend Sunstained in 2013 - NASA Science
The average temperature in 2013 was 58.3 degrees Fahrenheit (14.6 Celsius), which is 1.1 F (0.6 C) warmer than the mid-20th century baseline. The average global temperature has risen about 1.4 degrees F (0.8 C) since 1880, according to the new analysis. Exact rankings for individual years are sensitive to data inputs and analysis methods. - Eric Logan from Bookmarklet
Eric Logan
The case of the missing heat | Climate Etc. -
The case of the missing heat | Climate Etc.
Now, no one understands the cause of the pause, but climate scientists say the heat is hiding in the ocean. My next post will be on ocean heat content, so I’m not getting into this here. The competing explanation (the ‘denier’ one, I guess since I don’t hear mainstream climate scientists mentioning this) is that the heat never made it into the system, possibly related to changing cloud patterns or properties that reflected more solar radiation. - Eric Logan from Bookmarklet
Eric Logan
It's solar max! Stare at the sun for 30 minutes, online, right here - -
The show will revolve around a massive dark spot on the sun known as solar spot AR 1944. Last week, a massive X-class solar flare erupted from this area, causing enormous amounts of solar material to come hurtling toward Earth. Concern about the resulting increase in radiation in near-space led engineers at Orbital Sciences Corp. to delay the launch of a rocket scheduled to carry supplies to the International Space Station on Jan. 8. Solar spot AR 1944 was about 10 times the diameter of Earth when it first rotated into sight on Jan. 1. Slooh astronomers note that some smaller spots have appeared in the sun spot's wake. Happy, and safe, sun viewing! - Eric Logan from Bookmarklet
Eric Logan
BBC News - Has the Sun gone to sleep? -
Scientists are saying that the Sun is in a phase of "solar lull" - meaning that it has fallen asleep - and it is baffling them. History suggests that periods of unusual "solar lull" coincide with bitterly cold winters. Rebecca Morelle reports for BBC Newsnight on the effect this inactivity could have on our current climate, and what the implications might be for global warming. - Eric Logan from Bookmarklet
Eric Logan
Senate EPW Hearing on the President’s Climate Action Plan | Climate Etc. -
Senate EPW Hearing on the President’s Climate Action Plan | Climate Etc.
The premise of the President’s Climate Action Plan is that there is an overwhelming judgment of science that anthropogenic global warming is already producing devastating impacts. Anthropogenic greenhouse warming is a theory whose basic mechanism is well understood, but whose magnitude is highly uncertain. Multiple lines of evidence presented in the recent IPCC 5th assessment report suggest that the case for anthropogenic warming is now weaker than in 2007, when the 4th assessment report was published. My written testimony documented the following evidence: For the past 16 years, there has been no significant increase in surface temperature. There is a growing discrepancy between observations and climate model projections. Observations since 2011 have fallen below the 90% envelope of climate model projections The IPCC does not have a convincing or confident explanation for this hiatus in warming. There is growing evidence of decreased climate sensitivity to atmospheric carbon... more... - Eric Logan from Bookmarklet
Eric Logan
Climate change: The case of the missing heat : Nature -
Climate change: The case of the missing heat : Nature
Researchers have followed various leads in recent years, focusing mainly on a trio of factors: the Sun1, atmospheric aerosol particles2 and the oceans3. The output of energy from the Sun tends to wax and wane on an 11-year cycle, but the Sun entered a prolonged lull around the turn of the millennium. The natural 11-year cycle is currently approaching its peak, but thus far it has been the weakest solar maximum in a century. This could help to explain both the hiatus and the discrepancy in the model simulations, which include a higher solar output than Earth has experienced since 2000. An unexpected increase in the number of stratospheric aerosol particles could be another factor keeping Earth cooler than predicted. These particles reflect sunlight back into space, and scientists suspect that small volcanoes — and perhaps even industrialization in China — could have pumped extra aerosols into the stratosphere during the past 16 years, depressing global temperatures. Some have argued... more... - Eric Logan from Bookmarklet
Short form: CO2 did not cause the warming. Dr. Trenberth, at least, is making the effort to save his reputation with the admission that the IPCC models got it absolutely wrong. - MRW_8
Bob Tisdale (a researcher) has been describing the process that Trenberth is talking about for years. If any of you want an illustration of what they are talking about, here it is. Well worth looking at: - MRW_8
Here is a correct to three hours supercomputer view of the trade winds that Tisdale is talking about: If you click on the word EARTH and choose 250 in the height category, you will see a realtime view of the Jet Stream. Notice that the Jet Stream is moving in the opposite direction. You will need to click on the word EARTH again to get the full picture back. - MRW_8
Thanks. - Eric Logan
Eric Logan
Scientists discover giant trench under Antarctic Ice -
Scientists discover giant trench under Antarctic Ice
Professor Martin Siegert, Professor of Geosciences at the University of Bristol, said: "While the idea of West Antarctic Ice Sheet growth and decay over the past few million years has been discussed for decades, the precise location where the ice sheet may originate from in growth phases, and decay back to in periods of decay, has not been known. "By looking at the topography beneath the ice sheet using a combination of ice-penetrating radio-echo sounding and satellite imagery, we have revealed a region which possesses classic glacial geomorphic landforms, such as u-shaped valleys and cirques, that could only have been formed by a small ice cap, similar to those seen at present in the Canadian and Russian High Arctic. The region uncovered is, therefore, the site of ice sheet genesis in West Antarctica." The team's analysis has provided an unprecedented insight into the extent, thickness and behaviour of this ancient icefield, and the configuration and behaviour of the early West... more... - Eric Logan from Bookmarklet
Eric Logan
Unprecedented High Levels of Molecular Chlorine Discovered in the Arctic Atmosphere -
Unprecedented High Levels of Molecular Chlorine Discovered in the Arctic Atmosphere
In order to measure the chlorine levels in the Arctic, the researchers used chemical ionization mass spectrometry over a six-week period in the spring of 2009. They then spent several years running other experiments to ensure their findings were accurate. So what did they find? It turns out that the level of molecular chlorine above Barrow was as high as 400 parts per trillion. That's a high concentration considering that chlorine atoms are short-lived in the atmosphere because they are strong oxidants and are highly reactive with other atmospheric chemicals. The concentrations of this molecular chlorine peaked in the early morning and late afternoon, and fell to near-zero levels at night. Average daytime molecular chlorine levels were correlated with ozone concentrations, suggesting that sunlight and ozone may be required for molecular chlorine formation. "Molecular chlorine is so reactive that it's going to have a very strong influence on atmospheric chemistry," said Huey in a news... more... - Eric Logan from Bookmarklet
Climate science of methane. - Eric Logan
Eric Logan
Global Warming Pause Due To Pacific Says Trenberth - http://www.reportingclimatesci...
Global Warming Pause Due To Pacific Says Trenberth
Global Warming Pause Due To Pacific Says Trenberth
“We can speculate that the huge 1997–1998 El Niño event was a trigger for the change in the PDO; certainly, it led to a large loss of heat in the Pacific... that has taken years to recover from, if the recovery is even complete. Past behavior of the PDO... suggests that regimes can last for 25 years,” Trenberth and Fasullo write in their paper. “The picture emerging is one where the positive phase of the PDO from 1976 to 1998 enhanced the surface warming somewhat by reducing the amount of heat sequestered by the deep ocean, while the negative phase of the PDO is one where more heat gets deposited at greater depths, contributing to the overall warming of the oceans but cooling the surface somewhat. The Pacific Ocean appears to account for the majority of the decadal variability... Nevertheless, the events in the Pacific undoubtedly also affect the Atlantic, Indian, and Southern Oceans as the system acts collectively to equilibrate to these changes in the flow of energy,” they write. The paper, entitled “An apparent hiatus in global warming?”, appears the new scientific journal Earth Futures. - Eric Logan from Bookmarklet
Watch the scientists scrambling to save their reputations now with back-handed references to "apparent hiatus" as if we don't have their words and work on the net from 2007 when they scoffed that it couldn't be anything but CO2. BTW, *none* of the climate models used in the IPCC AR4 or AR5 have accounted for ENSO (La Nina/El Nino). And here's the comical part: they claim that the heat... more... - MRW_8
Rather than bore you, if you're interested in what that Temp rise has been in the 0m-700m range between 1969 and 2008, here' s a blog post that explains it well. Sydney Levitus is with the National Oceanographic Data Center, NOAA, and is a highly respected ocean researcher; the blog concerns his paper.. The table shown on Bob Tisdale's site is page 14 of the Levitus paper you can... more... - MRW_8
Eric Logan
Supercomputer models one second of human brain activity - Telegraph -
Supercomputer models one second of human brain activity - Telegraph
The most accurate simulation of the human brain ever has been carried out, but a single second’s worth of activity took one of the world’s largest supercomputers 40 minutes to calculate - Eric Logan from Bookmarklet
Eric Logan
Is the Universe Made of Math? - Scientific American -
Is the Universe Made of Math? - Scientific American
What's the answer to the ultimate question of life, the universe, and everything? In Douglas Adams' science-fiction spoof “The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy”, the answer was found to be 42; the hardest part turned out to be finding the real question. I find it very appropriate that Douglas Adams joked about 42, because mathematics has played a striking role in our growing understanding of our Universe. The Higgs Boson was predicted with the same tool as the planet Neptune and the radio wave: with mathematics. Galileo famously stated that our Universe is a “grand book” written in the language of mathematics. So why does our universe seem so mathematical, and what does it mean? In my new book “Our Mathematical Universe”, I argue that it means that our universe isn’t just described by math, but that it is math in the sense that we’re all parts of a giant mathematical object, which in turn is part of a multiverse so huge that it makes the other multiverses debated in recent years seem puny in comparison. - Eric Logan from Bookmarklet
The Mathematical Universe. The universe is a mathematical hologram. It’s made of ontological mathematics. It’s a living, thinking, self-optimising holographic organism composed of immortal, indestructible, ontological mathematical units called monads, defined by the most powerful and beautiful equation in the whole of mathematics: Euler’s Formula.... more... - Eric Logan
Eric Logan
Gold on Earth formed in collision of exotic stars -
Gold on Earth formed in collision of exotic stars
Dying stars billions of years ago cooked up most of the lighter elements in the universe, the oxygen in the air and calcium of our bones, and blasted it across the cosmos in their final explosive moments. We are stardust, as the singer Joni Mitchell put it. But some of the heaviest atoms, including gold, defied this explanation, requiring an even more exotic origin. A team led by Harvard astronomer Edo Berger now reports that gold is likely created as an aftereffect of the collision of two "neutron" stars. Neutron stars are themselves the collapsed remains of imploded stars, incredibly dense stellar objects that weigh at least 1.4 times as much as the sun but which are thought to be less than 10 miles wide. While ordinary stars explode about once every century in our galaxy, Berger says, explosive collisions of two neutron stars happen only about once every 10,000 years. And it appears they spew out gold and other heavy elements in the week after their merger. - Eric Logan from Bookmarklet
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