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Taxonomy
Anaerobic thermophiles. - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed...
Anaerobic thermophiles. Life (Basel). 2014;4(1):77-104 Authors: Canganella F, Wiegel J Abstract The term "extremophile" was introduced to describe any organism capable of living and growing under extreme conditions. With the further development of studies on microbial ecology and taxonomy, a variety of "extreme" environments have been found and an increasing number of extremophiles are being described. Extremophiles have also been investigated as far as regarding the search for life on other planets and even evaluating the hypothesis that life on Earth originally came from space. The first extreme environments to be largely investigated were those characterized by elevated temperatures. The naturally "hot environments" on Earth range from solar heated surface soils and water with temperatures up to 65 °C, subterranean sites such as oil reserves and terrestrial geothermal with temperatures ranging from slightly above ambient to above 100 °C, to submarine hydrothermal systems with...
Taxonomy
Strategies for enhancing fermentative production of acetoin: a review. - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed...
Related Articles Strategies for enhancing fermentative production of acetoin: a review. Biotechnol Adv. 2014 Mar-Apr;32(2):492-503 Authors: Xiao Z, Lu JR Abstract Acetoin is a volatile compound widely used in foods, cigarettes, cosmetics, detergents, chemical synthesis, plant growth promoters and biological pest controls. It works largely as flavour and fragrance. Since some bacteria were found to be capable of vigorous acetoin biosynthesis from versatile renewable biomass, acetoin, like its reduced form 2,3-butanediol, was also classified as a promising bio-based platform chemical. In spite of several reviews on the biological production of 2,3-butanediol, little has concentrated on acetoin. The two analogous compounds are present in the same acetoin (or 2,3-butanediol) pathway, but their production processes including optimal strains, substrates, derivatives, process controls and product recovery methods are quite different. In this review, the usages of acetoin are reviewed firstly...
Taxonomy
Vintana sertichi: Ancient Groundhog-Like Mammal Discovered in Madagascar - Sci-News.com - http://news.google.com/news...
Sci-News.com Vintana sertichi: Ancient Groundhog-Like Mammal Discovered in Madagascar Sci-News.com The new fossil mammal, named Vintana sertichi, belongs to Gondwanatheria (or gondwanatherians), a group of early mammals that lived during the Cretaceous through the Miocene in the Southern Hemisphere, including Antarctica. The animal's skull was ... and more »
Taxonomy
Hummingbirds Use Their Delicate Beaks as Dagger-Like Weapons - Sci-News.com - http://news.google.com/news...
Sci-News.com Hummingbirds Use Their Delicate Beaks as Dagger-Like Weapons Sci-News.com _____. Alejandro Rico-Guevara & Marcelo Araya-Salas. Bills as daggers? A test for sexually dimorphic weapons in a lekking hummingbird. Behavioral Ecology, published online October 18, 2014; doi: 10.1093/beheco/aru182. Published in. Biology · Featured. and more »
Taxonomy
Bumba lennoni: New Species of Tarantula Discovered in Brazil, Named after ... - Sci-News.com - http://news.google.com/news...
Sci-News.com Bumba lennoni: New Species of Tarantula Discovered in Brazil, Named after ... Sci-News.com An international group of scientists headed by Dr Laura Miglio from the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi in Brazil has described a new tarantula species from western Amazonia and named it after John Lennon. Bumba lennoni. Image credit: © Laura Miglio ...
Taxonomy
Common European Birds Facing Serious Decline, Study Finds - Sci-News.com - http://news.google.com/news...
Sci-News.com Common European Birds Facing Serious Decline, Study Finds Sci-News.com Europe has 421 million fewer birds than just three decades ago, according to a new study led by Dr Richard Inger from the University of Exeter's Environment and Sustainability Institute, UK. Around 90 % of these losses were from the 36 most common ... and more »
Taxonomy
Invasive Trichosporon infection in solid organ transplant patients: a report of two cases identified using IGS1 ribosomal DNA sequencing and a review of the literature. - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed...
Related Articles Invasive Trichosporon infection in solid organ transplant patients: a report of two cases identified using IGS1 ribosomal DNA sequencing and a review of the literature. Transpl Infect Dis. 2014 Feb;16(1):135-40 Authors: Almeida Júnior JN, Song AT, Campos SV, Strabelli TM, Del Negro GM, Figueiredo DS, Motta AL, Rossi F, Guitard J, Benard G, Hennequin C Abstract Trichosporon species are rare etiologic agents of invasive fungal infection in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. We report 2 well-documented cases of Trichosporon inkin invasive infection in SOT patients. We also conducted a detailed literature review of Trichosporon species infections in this susceptible population. We gathered a total of 13 cases of Trichosporon species infections. Any type of organ transplantation can be complicated by Trichosporon infection. Bloodstream infections and disseminated infections were the most common clinical presentations. Liver recipients with bloodstream or disseminated...
Taxonomy
Transposable elements and genome size variations in plants. - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed...
Related Articles Transposable elements and genome size variations in plants. Genomics Inform. 2014 Sep;12(3):87-97 Authors: Lee SI, Kim NS Abstract Although the number of protein-coding genes is not highly variable between plant taxa, the DNA content in their genomes is highly variable, by as much as 2,056-fold from a 1C amount of 0.0648 pg to 132.5 pg. The mean 1C-value in plants is 2.4 pg, and genome size expansion/contraction is lineage-specific in plant taxonomy. Transposable element fractions in plant genomes are also variable, as low as ~3% in small genomes and as high as ~85% in large genomes, indicating that genome size is a linear function of transposable element content. Of the 2 classes of transposable elements, the dynamics of class 1 long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons is a major contributor to the 1C value differences among plants. The activity of LTR retrotransposons is under the control of epigenetic suppressing mechanisms. Also, genome-purging mechanisms have...
Taxonomy
Towards a classification of biomarkers of neuropsychiatric disease: from encompass to compass. - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed...
Related Articles Towards a classification of biomarkers of neuropsychiatric disease: from encompass to compass. Mol Psychiatry. 2014 Oct 28; Authors: Davis J, Maes M, Andreazza A, McGrath JJ, Tye SJ, Berk M Abstract There is currently considerable imprecision in the nosology of biomarkers used in the study of neuropsychiatric disease. The neuropsychiatric field lags behind others such as oncology, wherein, rather than using 'biomarker' as a blanket term for a diverse range of clinical phenomena, biomarkers have been actively classified into separate categories, including prognostic and predictive tests. A similar taxonomy is proposed for neuropsychiatric diseases in which the core biology remains relatively unknown. This paper divides potential biomarkers into those of (1) risk, (2) diagnosis/trait, (3) state or acuity, (4) stage, (5) treatment response and (6) prognosis, and provides illustrative exemplars. Of course, biomarkers rely on available technology and, as we learn more...
Taxonomy
Recent advances in genomic DNA sequencing of microbial species from single cells. - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed...
Related Articles Recent advances in genomic DNA sequencing of microbial species from single cells. Nat Rev Genet. 2014 Sep;15(9):577-84 Authors: Lasken RS, McLean JS Abstract The vast majority of microbial species remain uncultivated and, until recently, about half of all known bacterial phyla were identified only from their 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence. With the advent of single-cell sequencing, genomes of uncultivated species are rapidly filling in unsequenced branches of the microbial phylogenetic tree. The wealth of new insights gained from these previously inaccessible groups is providing a deeper understanding of their basic biology, taxonomy and evolution, as well as their diverse roles in environmental ecosystems and human health. PMID: 25091868 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Taxonomy
A taxonomy of inductive problems. - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed...
Related Articles A taxonomy of inductive problems. Psychon Bull Rev. 2014 Feb;21(1):23-46 Authors: Kemp C, Jern A Abstract Inductive inferences about objects, features, categories, and relations have been studied for many years, but there are few attempts to chart the range of inductive problems that humans are able to solve. We present a taxonomy of inductive problems that helps to clarify the relationships between familiar inductive problems such as generalization, categorization, and identification, and that introduces new inductive problems for psychological investigation. Our taxonomy is founded on the idea that semantic knowledge is organized into systems of objects, features, categories, and relations, and we attempt to characterize all of the inductive problems that can arise when these systems are partially observed. Recent studies have begun to address some of the new problems in our taxonomy, and future work should aim to develop unified theories of inductive reasoning that...
Taxonomy
A digest of elasmobranch tapeworms. - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed...
Related Articles A digest of elasmobranch tapeworms. J Parasitol. 2014 Aug;100(4):373-91 Authors: Caira JN, Jensen K Abstract This review brings together decades of work on elasmobranch tapeworms. The field has advanced significantly over the past 20 yr, with an emphasis on the discovery and description of novel taxa, and the establishment of phylogenetic frameworks for individual orders and their interrelationships. Tapeworms parasitizing elasmobranchs represent 9 orders and include 977 species and 201 genera-over 250 species and 50 genera are new within the last 2 decades. The 9 orders are treated individually, highlighting recent assessments of phylogenetic relationships informed by molecular sequence data. All but the "Tetraphyllidea" are monophyletic. Although much remains to be learned about their interrelationships, existing phylogenetic hypotheses suggest that elasmobranch tapeworms have played a key role in the evolution of the cestodes of essentially all other vertebrate...
Taxonomy
Survey on Fall Detection and Fall Prevention Using Wearable and External Sensors. - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed...
Related Articles Survey on Fall Detection and Fall Prevention Using Wearable and External Sensors. Sensors (Basel). 2014;14(10):19806-19842 Authors: Delahoz YS, Labrador MA Abstract According to nihseniorhealth.gov (a website for older adults), falling represents a great threat as people get older, and providing mechanisms to detect and prevent falls is critical to improve people's lives. Over 1.6 million U.S. adults are treated for fall-related injuries in emergency rooms every year suffering fractures, loss of independence, and even death. It is clear then, that this problem must be addressed in a prompt manner, and the use of pervasive computing plays a key role to achieve this. Fall detection (FD) and fall prevention (FP) are research areas that have been active for over a decade, and they both strive for improving people's lives through the use of pervasive computing. This paper surveys the state of the art in FD and FP systems, including qualitative comparisons among various...
Taxonomy
Advances in taxonomy of genus phoma: polyphyletic nature and role of phenotypic traits and molecular systematics. - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed...
Related Articles Advances in taxonomy of genus phoma: polyphyletic nature and role of phenotypic traits and molecular systematics. Indian J Microbiol. 2014 Jun;54(2):123-8 Authors: Rai MK, Tiwari VV, Irinyi L, Kövics GJ Abstract Phoma is a highly polyphyletic genus with its unclear species boundaries. The conventional system of identification is functional but it has its limitations. Besides morphological studies, chemotaxonomy, secondary metabolite and protein profiling have been assessed for the classification and identification of these fungi. Molecular datasets have provided a better outlook towards the phylogenetic and evolutionary trends of Phoma. Molecular markers such as ITS-rDNA, tubulin, actin, translation elongation factor have been widely used by the taxonomists to demarcate species. However, outcomes gained up till now represent preliminary step towards the study of Phoma systematics and a combined approach would be beneficial in the understanding of this polyphyletic...
Taxonomy
Design considerations for a theory-driven exergame-based rehabilitation program to improve walking of persons with stroke. - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed...
Related Articles Design considerations for a theory-driven exergame-based rehabilitation program to improve walking of persons with stroke. Eur Rev Aging Phys Act. 2014;11(2):119-129 Authors: Wüest S, van de Langenberg R, de Bruin ED Abstract Virtual rehabilitation approaches for promoting motor recovery has attracted considerable attention in recent years. It appears to be a useful tool to provide beneficial and motivational rehabilitation conditions. Following a stroke, hemiparesis is one of the most disabling impairments and, therefore, many affected people often show substantial deficits in walking abilities. Hence, one of the major goals of stroke rehabilitation is to improve patients' gait characteristics and hence to regain their highest possible level of walking ability. Because previous studies indicate a relationship between walking and balance ability, this article proposes a stroke rehabilitation program that targets balance impairments to improve walking in stroke...
Taxonomy
Expanding the taxonomy of the diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders. - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed...
Related Articles Expanding the taxonomy of the diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders. J Oral Rehabil. 2014 Jan;41(1):2-23 Authors: Peck CC, Goulet JP, Lobbezoo F, Schiffman EL, Alstergren P, Anderson GC, de Leeuw R, Jensen R, Michelotti A, Ohrbach R, Petersson A, List T Abstract There is a need to expand the current temporomandibular disorders' (TMDs) classification to include less common but clinically important disorders. The immediate aim was to develop a consensus-based classification system and associated diagnostic criteria that have clinical and research utility for less common TMDs. The long-term aim was to establish a foundation, vis-à-vis this classification system, that will stimulate data collection, validity testing and further criteria refinement. A working group [members of the International RDC/TMD Consortium Network of the International Association for Dental Research (IADR), members of the Orofacial Pain Special Interest Group (SIG) of the International...
Taxonomy
Anticancer and antifungal compounds from Aspergillus, Penicillium and other filamentous fungi. - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed...
Related Articles Anticancer and antifungal compounds from Aspergillus, Penicillium and other filamentous fungi. Molecules. 2013;18(9):11338-76 Authors: Bladt TT, Frisvad JC, Knudsen PB, Larsen TO Abstract This review covers important anticancer and antifungal compounds reported from filamentous fungi and in particular from Aspergillus, Penicillium and Talaromyces. The taxonomy of these fungi is not trivial, so a focus of this review has been to report the correct identity of the producing organisms based on substantial previous in-house chemotaxonomic studies. PMID: 24064454 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Taxonomy
[Which definition and taxonomy of incident to use for a French reporting system in primary care settings?]. - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed...
Related Articles [Which definition and taxonomy of incident to use for a French reporting system in primary care settings?]. Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique. 2014 Feb;62(1):41-52 Authors: Keriel-Gascou M, Brami J, Chanelière M, Haeringer-Cholet A, Larrieu C, Villebrun F, Robert T, Michel P Abstract BACKGROUND: There is no widely accepted definition of incident for primary care doctors in France and no taxonomic classification system for epidemiological use. In preparation for a future epidemiological study on primary care incidents in France (the ESPRIT study), this work was designed to identify the definitions and taxonomic classifications used internationally along with the usual methods and results in terms of frequency in the literature. The goal was to determine a French definition and taxonomy. DESIGN: Systematic review of the literature and consensus methods. METHOD: An exhaustive search of epidemiological surveys was performed. A structured grid was used. After having identified...
Taxonomy
Nearly Extinct Hood Island Giant Tortoises Have Made Comeback from 15 to 1000 - Sci-News.com - http://news.google.com/news...
Sci-News.com Nearly Extinct Hood Island Giant Tortoises Have Made Comeback from 15 to 1000 Sci-News.com A population of Hood Island giant tortoises, which once dwindled to just over a dozen, has recovered on the Galapagos island of Española, says a team of scientists led by Prof James Gibbs of the State University of New York's College of Environmental ... and more »
Taxonomy
Zaraapelta nomadis: New Armored Dinosaur Discovered in Mongolia - Sci-News.com - http://news.google.com/news...
Sci-News.com Zaraapelta nomadis: New Armored Dinosaur Discovered in Mongolia Sci-News.com 2014. The ankylosaurid dinosaurs of the Upper Cretaceous Baruungoyot and Nemegt formations of Mongolia. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, vol. 172, no. 3, pp. 631–652; doi: 10.1111/zoj.12185. Published in. Featured · Paleontology. Tagged as. and more »
Taxonomy
Rana kauffeldi: New Cryptic Species of Frog Discovered in New York City - Sci-News.com - http://news.google.com/news...
Sci-News.com Rana kauffeldi: New Cryptic Species of Frog Discovered in New York City Sci-News.com A team of U.S. scientists headed by Dr Jeremy Feinberg of Rutgers University in New Brunswick, NJ, has described a new cryptic species of leopard frog from the New York City metropolitan area and surrounding coastal regions. The Atlantic Coast Leopard ... and more »
Taxonomy
You Live in What Kind of Home? A-nem-mo-ne-men… me-ne-mo-nee! - PLoS Blogs (blog) - http://news.google.com/news...
PLoS Blogs (blog) You Live in What Kind of Home? A-nem-mo-ne-men… me-ne-mo-nee! PLoS Blogs (blog) In the paper, the authors also discuss how the disappearance of host anemone species may either force clownfish to find new host species, or send them into decline. Further research ... PLoS ONE 9(5): e98449. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0098449. Mebs D ...
Taxonomy
Ebola, Other Filoviruses are at least 16 Million Years Old, Finds New Study - Sci-News.com - http://news.google.com/news...
Sci-News.com Ebola, Other Filoviruses are at least 16 Million Years Old, Finds New Study Sci-News.com Members of the Filoviridae, a family of viruses to which Ebola and its relative, Marburg virus, belong, are between 16 and 23 million years old – far older than previously thought, according to a new study led by Prof Derek Taylor of the University at ... and more »
Taxonomy
Glacier song - Science Codex - http://news.google.com/news...
Glacier song Science Codex Researchers at Nanjing University and collaborating institutions provide evidence for the presence of C4 taxa (largely sub-tropical and tropical grasses) on the Chinese Loess Plateau from at least the late Miocene, rising to prominence about 2.6 ...
Taxonomy
What's in a name? Everything -- if you're a fruit fly - EurekAlert (press release) - http://news.google.com/news...
What's in a name? Everything -- if you're a fruit fly EurekAlert (press release) Professor Tony Clarke, Chair of Fruit Fly Biology and Management from the Plant Biosecurity Cooperative Research Centre (PBCRC) and the Queensland University of Technology (QUT), believes the integrated multidisciplinary nature of the project leaves ... and more »
Taxonomy
Megalodon Became Extinct 2.6 Million Years Ago - Sci-News.com - http://news.google.com/news...
Sci-News.com Megalodon Became Extinct 2.6 Million Years Ago Sci-News.com Carcharocles megalodon, the largest shark that ever lived on Earth, became extinct approximately 2.6 million years ago, according to a new analysis of its fossil record carried out by Dr Christopher Clements of the University of Zurich and Catalina ... and more »
Taxonomy
Seabed study shows inhabitants' diversity - Planet Earth - http://news.google.com/news...
Seabed study shows inhabitants' diversity Planet Earth The tiny creatures that live in seabed sediments are far more genetically varied than we thought – and they're spread around the oceans according to similar rules to those governing the distribution of bigger plants and animals, a recent study shows.
Taxonomy
Ornithologists Map Family Tree of Mysterious Cotinga Birds - Sci-News.com - http://news.google.com/news...
Sci-News.com Ornithologists Map Family Tree of Mysterious Cotinga Birds Sci-News.com 120–136; doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2014.09.001. Published in. Biology. Tagged as. Amazonian umbrellabirdAndean cock-of-the-rockBirdCotingaGuianan cock-of-the-rock. Follow. Share. You Might Like. The Atlantic Coast Leopard Frog (Rana kauffeldi), males.
Taxonomy
New Land Snail Species Discovered in Taiwan - Sci-News.com - http://news.google.com/news...
Sci-News.com New Land Snail Species Discovered in Taiwan Sci-News.com Taxonomic revision of Aegista subchinensis (Möllendorff, 1884) (Stylommatophora, Bradybaenidae) and a description of a new species of Aegista from eastern Taiwan based on multilocus phylogeny and comparative morphology. ZooKeys 445: 31-55; doi: ...
Taxonomy
New species named after the struggle for same-sex marriage - Mongabay.com - http://news.google.com/news...
Mongabay.com New species named after the struggle for same-sex marriage Mongabay.com ... subchinensis (Möllendorff, 1884) (Stylommatophora, Bradybaenidae) and a description of a new species of Aegista from eastern Taiwan based on multilocus phylogeny and comparative morphology. ZooKeys 445: 31–55. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.445.7778 ... and more »
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